Morphological and Rheological Properties of Starches Separated from Cultivars of Rice (Oryza sativa L.) from North East India


Starch granules isolated from different accessions of rice from North East India showed a typical polygonal morphology with size ranging from 3.4 ± 0.8 μm to 6.4 ± 1.2 μm. The apparent amylose content (AAC) of the granules varied from 1.9% to 28.33%. Our results identify starch from IC-583088 as “waxy” and IC-583085, IC-583038, DPRR-168 as “very low” amylo-. The coefficient of resistance to flow (n) for starch pastes from the varieties of rice studied in the present investigation recorded a value of <1.0. The observed “n” value deviates from the Newtonian flow indicating the pseudoplastic nature of starches isolated from these varieties. While starch pastes from the accession IC-583088 recorded the highest ‘‘n’’ value of 0.6, that from the accession IC-545197 showed the lowest value of 0.03. The variations in coefficient of resistance to flow clearly revealed a higher ‘‘n’’ value for starch pastes from the “waxy” and ‘‘low” amylo-cultivars than the “intermediate” or ‘‘high” amylo-cultivars. Our results clearly established characteristic rheological properties for starches from the accessions SKY-AK-1608, IC-583035, YS-RC-219, IC-564939 and IC-332963, which exhibited greater resistance to thinning and shearing than other varieties.

Share and Cite:

Chrungoo, N. and Devi, A. (2015) Morphological and Rheological Properties of Starches Separated from Cultivars of Rice (Oryza sativa L.) from North East India. American Journal of Plant Sciences, 6, 2019-2031. doi: 10.4236/ajps.2015.612202.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Shannon, J.C. and Garwood, D.L. (1984) Genetics and Physiology of Starch Development. In: Whistler, R.L., Be-Miller, J.N. and Paschell, E.F., Eds., Starch: Chemistry and Technology, Academic Press, Orlando, 25.
[2] Makella, M.J. and Laakso, S. (2006) Studies on Oat Starch with a Celloscope: Granule Size and Distribution. Starch/Starke, 36, 159-163.
[3] Evers, A.D. (1971) Scanning Electron Microscopy of Wheat Starch. III. Granule Development in the Endosperm. Starch/Starke, 23, 157.
[4] Simmonds, D.H. and O’Brien, T.P. (1981) Morphological and Biochemical Development of Wheat Endosperm. Advanced Cereal Science Technology, 4, 5-14.
[5] Dengate, H. and Meredith, P. (1984) Variation in Size Distribution of Starch Granules from Wheat Grain. Journal of Cereal Science, 3, 83-90.
[6] Morrisson, W.R. and Scott, D.C. (1986) Measurements of the Dimensions of Wheat Starch Granule Populations Using a Coulter Counter with 100-Channel Analyser. Journal of Cereal Science, 4, 13-21.
[7] Lindebloom, N., Chang, P.R. and Tyler, R.T. (2004) Analytical, Biochemical and Hysiochemical Aspects of Starch Granule Size, with Emphasis on Small Granule Starches: A Review. Starch/Starke, 56, 89-99.
[8] Juliano, B.O. (1984) Rice Starch: Production, Properties and Uses. In: Whistler, R.L., BeMiller, J.N. and Paschall, E.F., Eds., Starch Chemistry and Technology, Academic Press, Orlando, 507-528.
[9] Hoover, R., Smith, C., Zhou, Y. and Ratnayake, R.M.W.S. (2003) Physicochemical Properties of Canadian Oat Starches. Carbohydrate Polymers, 52, 253-261.
[10] Bao, J.S. and Bergman, C. (2004) The Functionality of Rice Starch. In: Eliasson, A.C., Ed., Starch in Food: Structure, Function and Applications, Woodhead Publishing, Cambridge, 152-184.
[11] Tester, R.F., Karkalas, J. and Qi, X. (2004) Starch Composition, Fine Structure and Architecture. Journal of Cereal Science, 39, 151-165.
[12] Hizukuri, S. (1986) Polymodal Distribution of the Chain Lengths of Amylopectins and Its Significance. Carbohydrate Research, 147, 342-347.
[13] Wang, L.T., Bograchava, T.Y. and Hedley, C. (1998) Starch: As Simple as A, B, C: Review. Journal of Experimental Botany, 49, 480-502.
[14] Imberty, A., Buleon, A., Tran, V. and Perez, S. (1991) Recent Advances in Knowledge of Starch Structure. Starch/ Starke, 43, 375-384.
[15] Park, I., Ibanez, A.M. and Shoemaker, C.F. (2007) Rice Starch Molecular Size and Its Relationship with Amylose Content. Starch/Starke, 59, 69-77.
[16] Patindol, J., Gu, X. and Wang, Y.-J. (2009) Chemometric Analysis of the Gelatinization and Pasting Properties of Long-Grain Rice Starches in Relation to Fine Structure. Starch/Starke, 63, 3-11.
[17] Galliard, T. and Bowler, P. (1987) Morphology and Composition of Starch, In: Galliard, T., Ed. Starch: Properties and Potential, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 281.
[18] Singh, N., Singh, J., Kaur, L., Sodhi, N.S. and Gill, B.S. (2003) Morphological, Thermal and Rheological Properties of Starches from Different Botanical Sources. Food Chemistry, 81, 219-231.
[19] Tester, R.F. and Morrison, W.R. (1990) Swelling and Gelatinization of Cereal Starches. 1. Effects of Amylopectins, Amylose, and Lipids. Cereal Chemistry, 67, 551-557.
[20] Graybosch, R.A. (1998) Waxy Wheats: Origin, Properties and Prospects. Trends in Food Science and Technology, 9, 135-142.
[21] Bligh, F.J. (1999) Genetic Manipulation of Starch Biosynthesis: Progress and Potential. Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering Reviews, 16, 177-201.
[22] Frei, M., Siddhuraju, P. and Becker, K. (2003) Studies on the in Vivo Starch Digestibility and the Glycemic Index of Six Different Indigenous Rice Cultivars from the Philippines. Food Chemistry, 83, 395-402.
[23] Mao, A.A., Hynniewta, T.M. and Sanjappa, M. (2009) Plant Wealth of Northeast India with Reference to Ethnobotany. Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge, 8, 96-103.
[24] Takaoka, M., Wantanabe, S., Sassa, H., Yamamori, M., Nakamura, T., Sasakuma, T. and Hirano, H. (1997) Structural Characterization of High Molecular Weight Starch Granule-Bound Proteins in Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry, 45, 2929-2934.
[25] David, G.S., Russel, K.D., Jay-Lin, J. and George, E.I. (2006) Structures and Functional Properties of Starch from Seeds of Three Soyabean (Glycine max L. Merr.) Varieties. Starch/Starke, 58, 509-519.
[26] Juliano, B.O. (1971) A Simplified Assay for Milled Rice Amylose. Cereal Science Today, 16, 334-340.
[27] Thongbam, P.D., Raychaudhury, M., Durai, A., Das, S.P., Ramesh, T., Ramya, K.T., Fayaz, A.R. and Ngachan, S.V. (2012) Studies on Grain and Food Quality Traits of Some Indigenous Rice Cultivars of North-Eastern Hill Region of India. Journal of Agricultural Science, 4, 259-270.
[28] Li, Y., Shoemaker, C.F., Ma, T., Moon, T. and Zhong, F. (2008) Structure-Viscosity Relationships of Starches from Different Rice Varieties during Heating. Food Chemistry, 106, 1105-1115.
[29] Cruz, N.D. and Khush, G.S. (2000) Rice Grain Quality Evaluation Procedures. In: Singh, R.K., Singh, U.S. and Khush, G.S., Eds., Aromatic Rices, Oxford and IBH Publishing Co Pvt. Ltd, New Delhi, 15-28.
[30] Yeh, A.-I. and Li, J.-Y. (1996a) A Continuous Measurement of Swelling of Rice Starch during Heating. Journal of Cereal Science, 23, 277-283.
[31] Li, J.-Y. and Yeh, A.-I. (2001) Relationships between Thermal, Rheological Characteristics and Swelling Power for Various Starches. Journal of Food Engineering, 50, 141-148.
[32] Zaidul, I.S.M., Yamauchi, H., Kim, S.J., Hashimoto, N. and Noda, T. (2007) RVA Study of Mixtures of Wheat Flour and Potato Starches with Different Phosphorus Content. Food Chemistry, 102, 1105-1111.
[33] Puncha-Arnon, S., Puttanlek, C., Rungsardthong, V., Pathipanawat, W. and Uttapap, D. (2007) Changes in Physicochemical Properties and Morphology of Canna Starches during Rhizomal Development. Carbohydrate Polymers, 70, 206-217.
[34] Singh, S. and Singh, N. (2010) Relationship of Granule Size Distribution and Amylopectin Structure with Pasting, Thermal, and Retrogradation Properties in Wheat Starch. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry, 58, 1180-1188.
[35] Manners, D.J. (1979) The Enzymatic Degradation of Starches. In: Blanshard, J.M.V. and Mitchell, J.R., Eds., Polysaccharides in Food, Butterworths, London, 5-91.
[36] Wang, Y.-X., Ni, S., Chen, H.-Q., Liu, G.-F., Yang, J., Duan, B.-W. and Zhu, X.-D. (2010) Improvement of Method for Evaluating Amylose Content in Rice at Low Generations of Breeding. Chinese Journal of Rice Science, 24, 93-98.
[37] Dobo, M., Ayers, M., Walker, G. and Park, W.D. (2010) Polymorphism in the GBSS Gene Affects Amylose Content in US and European Rice Germplasm. Journal of Cereal Science, 52, 450-456.
[38] Jimenez, R.R., Resurreccion, A.P. and Fitzgerald, M.A. (2010) Moving from Apparent to Actual Amylose in Rice. Proceedings of the 28th International Rice Research Conference, Hanoi, 8-12 November 2010, pp.
[39] Hoi, T.T., Nishi, A. and Satoh, H. (2008) Diversity of Granule Bound Starch Synthesis (GBSS) Levels in North Vietnam Local Rice Cultivars. Rice Genetics Newsletter, 24, 62-64.
[40] Mutters, R.G. and Thomson, J.F. (2009) Rice Quality Handbook. University of California Agriculture and Natural Resources Pub. No. 3514.
[41] Lawal, O.S., Lapasin, R., Bellich, B., Olayiwola, T.O., Cesaro, A., Yoshimura, M. and Nishinari, K. (2011) Rheology and Functional Properties of Starches Isolated from Five Improved Rice Varieties from West Africa. Food Hydrocolloids, 25, 1785-1792.
[42] Jayamani, P., Negrao, S., Brites, C. and Oliveira, M.M. (2007) Potential of Waxy Gene Microsatellite and Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms to Develop Japonica Varieties with Desired Amylose Levels in Rice (Oryza sativa L.). Journal Cereal Science, 46, 178-186.
[43] Rao, M.A., Okechukwu, P.E. and Silva, D.R. (1997) Rheological Behavior of Heated Starch Dispersions in Excess Water: Role of Starch Granule. Carbohydrate Polymers, 33, 273-283.
[44] Nurul, M.I., Azemi, B.M.N.M. and Manan, D.M.A. (1999) Rheological Behaviour of Sago (Metroxylon sagu) Starch Paste. Food Chemistry, 64, 501-505.
[45] Gibiński, M., Kowalski, S., Sady, M., Krawontka, J., Tomasik, P. and Sikora, M. (2006) Thickening of Sweet and Sour Sauces with Various Polysaccharide Combinations. Journal of Food Engineering, 75, 407-414.
[46] Morrison, W.R. (1995) Starch Lipids and How They Relate to Starch Granule Structure and Functionality. Cereal Foods World, 40, 437-446.

Copyright © 2023 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.