Using a Clean Feedback Model to Facilitate the Learning Process


Effective and informative feedback is an essential part of learning and improving performance that is influenced by a number of issues, such as time constraints, ambiguous communication and emotional barriers (Hattie, 1998). Feedback should facilitate the learning process and the teaching performance. Accordingly, in this article we examine the “clean feedback” model developed by Walker and Doyle (2006) and explore its impact on the learning experiences of a purposeful sample of eleven beginning physical education teachers undertaking a one year postgraduate Qualified Teacher Status course at a post-92 university in the North West of England. After two days of staff and student training in using the model, the data in the form of lesson evaluations and self feedback were collected at staged time intervals during their second placement school. The findings indicate that the model has improved the students’ ability to give and receive both positive and negative feedback and to improve students self awareness and understanding of their own learning and teaching styles. The implications of our findings are discussed in relation to the observation and feedback of the beginning teachers and mentors might be improved on such courses for physical education trainee teachers.

Share and Cite:

Walsh, B. , Nixon, S. , Walker, C. and Doyle, N. (2015) Using a Clean Feedback Model to Facilitate the Learning Process. Creative Education, 6, 953-960. doi: 10.4236/ce.2015.610097.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Audia, P. G., & Locke, E. A. (2003). Benefiting from Negative Feedback. Human Resource Management Review, 13, 631-646.
[2] Benedict, M. E., & Levine, E. L. (1988). Delay and Distortion: Tacit Influences on Performance Appraisal Effectiveness. Journal of Applied Psychology, 3, 507-514.
[3] Black, P., & Wiliam, D. (1998). Assessment and Classroom Learning. Assessment in Education, 5, 7-74.
[4] Brinko, K. T. (1993). The Practice of Giving Feedback to Improve Teaching: What Is Effective? The Journal of Higher Education, 64, 574-593.
[5] Chanock, K. (2000). Comments on Essays: Do Students Understand what Tutors Write? Teaching in Higher Education, 5, 95-105.
[6] Ellis, V. (2007). Learning and Teaching in Secondary Schools (3rd ed.). Exeter: Learning Matters Limited.
[7] Gibbs, G., & Simpson, C. (2004). Conditions under Which Assessment Supports Students’ Learning. Learning and Teaching in Higher Education, 1, 3-31.
[8] Hattie, J. A. (1997). Setting Standards for Beginning Teachers: A Discussion Paper. Washington DC: National Council for Accreditation of Teaching Standards.
[9] Hattie, J. A., & Jaeger, R. (1998). Assessment and Classroom Learning. A Deductive Approach. Assessment in Education, 5, 111-122.
[10] Hattie, J. A., & Timperley, H. (2007). The Power of Feedback. Review of Educational Research, 77, 81-112.
[11] Higgins, R., Hartley, P., & Skelton, A. (2001). Getting the Message Across: the Problem of Communicating Assessment Feedback. Teaching in Higher Education, 6, 269-274.
[12] Higgins, R., Hartley, P., & Skelton, A. (2002). The Conscientious Consumer: Reconsidering the Role of Assessment Feedback in Student Learning. Studies in Higher Education, 27, 53-64.
[13] James, D. (2000). Making the Graduate: Perspectives on Student Experience of Assessment in Higher Education. In A. Filer (Ed.), Assessment: Social Practice and Social Product. London: Routledge.
[14] Kluger, A.N., & DeNisi, A. (1998). Feedback Interventions: Towards the Understanding of a Double Edged Sword. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 7, 67-72.
[15] Kyriacou, C. (1998). Essential Teaching Skills (2nd ed.). Cheltenham: Stanley Thornes.
[16] Levy, P. E., & Williams, J. R. (2004). The Social Context for Performance Appraisal: A Review and Framework for the Future. Journal of Management, 30, 881-905.
[17] Lipnevich, A. A., & Smith, J. K. (2009). “I Really Need Feedback to Learn”: Students’ Perspectives on the Effectiveness of the Differential Feedback Messages. Educational Assessment, Evaluation and Accountability, 21, 347-367.
[18] Maclellan, E. (2001). Assessment for Learning: The Differing Perceptions of Tutors and Students. Assessment and Evaluation in Higher Education, 26, 307-318.
[19] Molden, D. (2007). Managing with the Power of NLP. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
[20] Nicol, D., & Macfarlane-Dick, D. (2006). Formative Assessment and Self-Regulated Learning: A Model and Seven Principles of Good Feedback Practice. Studies in Higher Education, 31, 199-218.
[21] Orsmond, P., Merry, S., & Reiling, K (2002). The Student Use of Formative Feedback in Their Learning. Paper presented at the Learning Communities and Assessment Cultures Conference, University of Northumbria, 28-30 August 2002.
[22] Ovando, M. N. (1994). Constructive Feedback: A Key to Successful Teaching and Learning. International Journal of Education Management, 8, 19-22.
[23] Podsakoff, P. M., & Farh, J.-L. (1989). Effects of Feedback Sign and Credibility on Goal Setting and Task Performance. Organisational Behaviour and Human Decision Processes, 44, 45-67.
[24] Race, P. (2001). Using Feedback to Help Students Learn. New York: Higher Education Academy.
[25] Ramsden, P. (2003). Learning to Teach in Higher Education (2nd ed.). London: Routledge.
[26] Sadler, R. (1989). Formative Assessment and the Design of Instructional Systems. Instructional Science, 18, 119-144.
[27] Walker, C., & Doyle, N. (2006). Accessed 9 May 2012.
[28] Yorke, M. (2003). Formative Assessment in Higher Education: Moves towards Theory and the Enhancement of Pedagogic Practice. Higher Education, 45, 477-501.
[29] Zimmerman, B. J., & Schunk, D. H. (Eds.) (2001). Self-Regulated Learning and Academic Achievement: Theoretical Perspectives (2nd ed.). London: Routledge.

Copyright © 2022 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.