Anti-Oxidative, Anti-Hyperglycemic and Lipid-Lowering Effects of Aqueous Extracts of Ocimum sanctum L. Leaves in Diabetic Rats


The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of aqueous extracts of Ocimum sanctum L. leaves on blood glucose, serum lipid profile and anti-oxidative activity to protect various risk organs in DM rats. Ocimum sanctum L. leaves were extracted using water, then the total phenolic content was determined. Three groups of male Wistar rats were used including normal control rats, DM rats and DM rats daily fed with aqueous extracts of Ocimum sanctum L. leaves (AQOS) for three weeks. DM rats were induced by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (65 mg/kgbw). The results show that three weeks of diabetic induction increased blood glucose, serum lipid profile and serum levels of AST, ALT, ALP, LDH, CK-MB, creatinine and BUN. AQOS significantly decreased blood glucose, serum lipid profile and serum levels of AST, ALT, ALP, LDH, CK-MB, creatinine and BUN. The low level of serum insulin was also raised by AQOS. AQOS suppressed high TBARS level and raised the activities of antioxidant enzymes in the liver, kidney and cardiac tis- sues. Histopathological results show that AQOS preserved the liver, kidney and myocardial tissues. It can be concluded that AQOS had anti-hyperglycemic, anti-hyperlipidemic, and free radical sca- venging effects providing organ protection from diabetes. The phenolic compounds contained in AQOS might be responsible for these activities.

Share and Cite:

Suanarunsawat, T. , Ayutthaya, W. , Thirawarapan, S. and Poungshompoo, S. (2014) Anti-Oxidative, Anti-Hyperglycemic and Lipid-Lowering Effects of Aqueous Extracts of Ocimum sanctum L. Leaves in Diabetic Rats. Food and Nutrition Sciences, 5, 801-811. doi: 10.4236/fns.2014.59090.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Gezginci-Oktayoglu, S., Basaraner, H., Yanardag, R. and Bolkent, S. (2009) The Effects of Combined Treatment of Antioxidants on the Liver Injury in STZ Diabetic Rats. Digestive Diseases and Sciences, 54, 538-546.
[2] American Diabetes Association (2010) Diagnosis and Classification of Diabetes Mellitus. Diabetes Care, 33, S62-S69.
[3] Wild, S., Roglic, G., Green, A., Sicree, R. and King, H. (2004) Global Prevalence of Diabetes: Estimates for the Year 2000 and Projections for 2030. Diabetes Care, 27, 1047-1053.
[4] Emilien, G., Maloteaux, J.M. and Ponchon, M. (1999) Pharmacological Management of Diabetes: Recent Progress and Future Perspective in Daily Drug Treatment. Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 81, 37-51.
[5] Chandrasekaran, C.V., Srikanth, H.S., Anand, M.S., Allan, J.J., Viji, M.M. and Amit, A. (2013) Evaluation of the Mutagenic Potential and Acute Oral Toxicity of Standardized Extract of Ocimum sanctum (OciBestTM). Human and Experimental Toxicology, 32, 992-1004.
[6] Mahajan, N., Rawal, S., Verma, M., Poddar, M. and Alok, S. (2013) A Phytopharmacological Overview on Ocimum Species with Special Emphasis on Ocimum sanctum. Biomedicine and Preventive Nutrition, 3, 185-192.
[7] Pattanayak, P., Behera, P., Das, D. and Panda, S.K. (2010) Ocimum sanctum Linn. A Reservoir Plant for Therapeutic Applications: An Overview. Pharmacognosy Review, 4, 95-105.
[8] Sethi, J., Sood, S., Seth, S. and Talwar, A. (2004) Evaluation of Hypoglycemic and Antioxidant Effect of Ocimum sanctum. Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry, 19, 152-155.
[9] Suanarunsawat, T. and Songsak, T. (2005) Anti-Hyperglycemic and Anti-Hyperlipidemic Effect of Dietary Supplement of White Ocimum sanctum L. before and after STZ-Induced Diabetes Mellitus. International Journal of Diabetes and Metabolism, 13, 18-23.
[10] Reddy, S.S., Karuna, R., Baskar, R. and Saralakumari, D. (2008) Prevention of Insulin Resistance by Ingesting Aqueous Extract of Ocimum sanctum to Fructose-Fed Rats. Hormone and Metabolic Research, 40, 44-49.
[11] Narendhirakannan, R.T., Subramanian, S. and Kandaswamy, M. (2006) Biochemical Evaluation of Antidiabetogenic Properties of Some Commonly Used Indian Plants on Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes in Experimental Rats. Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology, 33, 1150-1157.
[12] Patil, R.N., Patil, R.Y., Ahirwar, B. and Ahirwar, D. (2011) Evaluation of Antidiabetic and Related Actions of Some Indian Medicinal Plants in Diabetic Rats. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine, 4, 20-23.
[13] Suanarunsawat, T., Ayutthaya, W.D., Songsak, T., Thirawarapan, S. and Poungshompoo, S. (2011) Lipid-Lowering and Antioxidative Activities of Aqueous Extracts of Ocimum sanctum L. Leaves in Rats Fed with a High-Cholesterol Diet. Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity, 2011, Article ID 962025.
[14] Shetty, S., Udupa, S. and Udupa, L. (2008) Evaluation of Antioxidant and Wound Healing Effects of Alcoholic and Aqueous Extract of Ocimum sanctum Linn in Rats. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 5, 95101.
[15] Manikandan, P., Murugan, R.S., Abbas, H., Abraham, S.K. and Nagini, S. (2007) Ocimum sanctum Linn. (Holy Basil) Ethanolic Leaf Extract Protects against 7,12-Dimethylbenz(a)Anthracene-Induced Genotoxicity, Oxidative Stress, and Imbalance in Xenobiotic-Metabolizing Enzymes. Journal of Medicinal Food, 10, 495-502.
[16] Sharmila, B.G., Kumar, G. and Murugesan, A.G. (2009) Effects of Leaves Extract of Ocimum sanctum L. on Arsenic-Induced Toxicity in Wistar Albino Rats. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 47, 490-495.
[17] Ramesh, B. and Satakopan, V.N. (2010) Antioxidant Activities of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Ocimum sanctum against Cadmium Induced Toxicity in Rats. Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry, 25, 307-310.
[18] Sood, S., Narang, D., Dinda, A.K. and Maulik, S.K. (2005) Chronic Oral Administration of Ocimum sanctum Linn Augments Cardiac Endogenous Antioxidants and Prevents Isoproterenal-Induced Myocardial Necrosis in Rats. Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, 57, 127-133.
[19] Li, C.J., Lv, L., Li, H. and Yu, D.M. (2012) Cardiac Fibrosis and Dysfunction in Experimental Diabetic Cardiomyopathy Are Ameliorated by Alpha-Lipoic Acid. Cardiovascular Diabetology, 11, 73.
[20] Mercer, B.N., Morais, S., Cubbon, R.M. and Kearney, M.T. (2012) Diabetes Mellitus and the Heart. International Journal of Clinical Practice, 66, 640-647.
[21] Anandjiwala, S., Kalola, J. and Rajani, M. (2006) Quantification of Eugenol, Luteolin, Ursolic Acid, and Oleanolic Acid in Black (Krishna Tulasi) and Green (Sri Tulasi) Varieties of Ocimum sanctum Linn. Using High-Performance Thin-Layer Chromatography. Journal of AOAC International, 89, 1467-1474.
[22] Suanarunsawat, T., Boonnak, T., Ayutthaya, W.D. and Thirawarapan, T. (2010) Anti-Hyperlipidemic and Cardioprotective Effects of Ocimum sanctum L. Fixed Oil in Rats Fed a High Fat Diet. Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology, 21, 387-400.
[23] Gülcin, I., Elmastas, M., and Aboul-Enein, H.Y. (2007) Determination of Antioxidant and Radical Scavenging Activity of Basil (Ocimum basilicum L. Family Lamiaceae) Assayed by Different Methodologies. Phytotherapy Research, 21, 354-361.
[24] Geetha, R.K. and Vasudevan, D.M. (2004) Inhibition of Lipid Peroxidation by Botanical Extracts of Ocimum sanctum: in vivo and in vitro Studies. Life Sciences, 76, 21-28.
[25] Ohkawa, H., Ohishi, N. and Yagi, K. (1979) Assay for Lipid Peroxides in Animal Tissues by Thiobarbituric Acid Reaction. Analytical Biochemistry, 95, 351-358.
[26] Lowry, O.H., Rosebrough, N.J., Farr, A.L. and Randall, R.J. (1951) Protein Measurement with the Folin Phenol Reagent. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 193,265-275.
[27] Tapple, A.L. (1978) Glutathione Peroxidase and Hydroperoxidase Methods. In: Sidney, F. and Lester, P., Eds., Methods in Enzymology, Academic Press, New York, 506-513.
[28] Luck, H. (1965) Catalase. In: Bergmeyer, H.U., Ed., Method of Enzymatic Analysis, Academic Press, New York and London, 885-894.
[29] Winterbourn, C.C., Hawkins, R.E., Brian, M. and Carrell, R.W. (1975) The Estimation of Red Cell Superoxide Dismutase Activity. The Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine, 85, 337-341.
[30] Humanson, G.L. (1979) Part I Basic Procedure. In: Freeman, W.H., Ed., Animal Tissue Technique, 4th Edition, W. H. Freeman and Company, San Francisco, 1-129.
[31] Hannan, J.M., Marenah, L., Ali, L., Rokeya, B., Flatt, P.R. and Abdel-Wahab, Y.H. (2006) Ocimum sanctum Leaf Extracts Stimulate Insulin Secretion from Perfused Pancreas, Isolated Islets and Clonal Pancreatic Beta-Cells. Journal of Endocrinology, 89, 127-136.
[32] Wiernsperger, N.F. (2003) Oxidative Stress as a Therapeutic Target in Diabetes: Revisiting the Controversy. Diabetes and Metabolism, 29, 579-585.
[33] King, G.L. and Loeken, M.R. (2004) Hyperglycemia-Induced Oxidative Stress in Diabetic Complications. Histochemistry and Cell Biology, 122, 333-338.
[34] Kumar, S., Prasad, S. and Sitasawad, S.L. (2013) Multiple Antioxidants Improve Cardiac Complications and Inhibit Cardiac Cell Death in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats. PLoS ONE, 8, e67009.
[35] Zobali, F., Avci, A., Canbolat, O. and Karasu, C. (2002) Effects of Vitamin A and Insulin on the Anti-Oxidative State of Diabetic Rat Heart: A Comparison Study with Combination Treatment. Cell Biochemistry and Function, 20, 75-80.
[36] Fenercioglu, A.K., Saler, T., Genc, E., Sabuncu, H. and Altuntas, Y. (2010) The Effects of Polyphenol-Containing Antioxidants on Oxidative Stress and Lipid Peroxidation in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus without Complications. Journal of Endocrinological Investigation, 33, 118-124.
[37] Stephen, I.S., Sunil, C., Duraipandiyan, V. and Ignacimuthu, S. (2012) Antidiabetic and Antioxidant Activities of Toddalia asiatica (L.) Lam. Leaves in Streptozotocin Induced Diabetic Rats. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 143, 515-523.

Copyright © 2023 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.