Publication Ethics

SCIRP pledges to uphold the highest standards of scholarly integrity through a thorough peer-review process coupled with stringent ethical policies. The editorial board maintains a zero-tolerance stance on all acts of professional misconduct, including but not limited to plagiarism, fraudulent misuse of research findings, and false claims of authorship. Rest assured that any such unethical behavior will be dealt with in a serious manner by our editors.


It is required that manuscript submissions are conducted solely by one of the authors listed. Any submission made by individuals other than the aforementioned authors will be considered invalid and therefore, not accepted. Additionally, the submitted manuscript or any subsequent translation of the work must not have been published nor submitted for publication elsewhere. Any breach of these regulations will ultimately lead to the submission being immediately rejected sans further review.

When a new submission is received, the publisher's office shall conduct a number of preliminary evaluations:

  • Initial check of format and completeness
  • Initial check for the publication status
  • Initial check of author's background
  • Initial check for Plagiarism
  • Check for machine produced manuscript


Manuscripts submitted to SCIRP are required to include original content. In order to ensure this, an initial Plagiarism Check is conducted for every submission. The check commences with a comprehensive Google search, which is integrated into SCIRP's Paper Submission and Manuscript Tracking System.

SCIRP is an esteemed member of CrossCheck, and has systematically added all of its papers to the CrossCheck database. By doing this, other publishers now have the capability to compare their own manuscripts with those of SCIRP. This cross-checking process is conveniently facilitated through the web-based iThenticate system, which involves the uploading of a document and executing a similarity analysis against the CrossCheck database as well as other Internet sources. The end result is a "Similarity Index," which reflects the percentage of matching content within the manuscript. It is vital to note that iThenticate is not equipped to determine whether a manuscript contains plagiarism. Hence, manuscripts with a high "Similarity Index" will be thoroughly examined to ensure that all matching sources have been properly cited.

Data Fabrication and Falsification

Data Fabrication, a grave matter, refers to the outright creation of research findings. Data Falsification, on the other hand, entails the manipulation of research data in order to present a deceptive impression. Examples of data falsification include altering images such as micrographs, gels or radiological images, the removal of outliers or "inconvenient" results, as well as the changing, adding or omitting of data points, among others. In instances where figures provided by an author come under question, it is advisable to request the original data directly from the author.

SCIRP adheres strictly to the Code of Conduct published by the prestigious Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE), with all difficulties concerning potential cases of misconduct handled according to COPE Flowcharts for Resolving Cases of Suspected Misconduct.

Conflicts of Interest


It is of utmost importance that authors remain cognizant of the likelihood of a Conflict of Interest arising. Nonetheless, if said conflict does occur, authors must still take full responsibility for ensuring the accuracy of their paper. It is, however, essential that authors provide the readership with an appropriate statement in the Acknowledgements section of the paper, disclosing the presence of any potential Conflict of Interest.

Conflicts include the following:

  • Financial concerns refer to any funding, payments, goods or services received or anticipated by the authors, which are related to the subject of the work or are from an organization that has a vested interest in the outcome of the research.
  • Affiliations include individuals employed by or serving on an advisory board of an organization that holds an interest in the outcome of the work.
  • Intellectual property refers to patents or trademarks that are owned by the author, their organization or a third party.
  • Personal factors involve connections such as friends, family, or other close personal relationships that have the potential to influence the outcome of the work.
  • Ideological factors relate to personal beliefs or activism (such as political or religious) that are pertinent to the work.
  • Academic considerations comprise competitors or researchers whose work is being critiqued as part of the work.

Declared conflicts of interest will be considered by the editor and reviewers and included in the published article.


It is imperative that reviewers are explicitly questioned regarding the presence of any conflicts of interest that may hinder or bias their impartial evaluation of a manuscript. In the event of any such conflicts, reviewers are required to reveal such details to the editors and abstain from reviewing manuscripts that may potentially be biased. Additionally, reviewers are forbidden from utilizing knowledge of any material that is under review prior to its publication for their own personal gain or advancement.

Editors and Journal Staff

Editors entrusted with rendering final decisions concerning manuscripts are obligated to excuse themselves from editorial decisions in situations where conflicts of interest or relationships that have the potential to pose conflicts arise related to articles that are under consideration. Other members of the editorial team who participate in editorial decisions are obliged to provide editors with a comprehensive account of their current financial interests or other conflicts that may have an impact on editorial judgments, and must recuse themselves from any decisions in which a conflict of interest exists. Under no circumstances should editorial staff exploit information gained through involvement with manuscripts for personal gain. It is also essential for editors to publish regular disclosure statements regarding potential conflicts of interests that may arise from their own and the journal staff’s commitments. Guest editors are expected to abide by the same protocols.

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