Didactics of Physical Education: The Case of Motivational Students Profiles in Pole Vaulting Performance


This work attempts to determine the students’ motivation in physical education area through analyzed clusters. As a particular topic in Tunisia we highlight the relationship between motiva-tional profiles and the students’ performance in pole vaulting. For this, three grades’ students (37 girls, 32 boys) from randomly selected sport-studies classes provided data questionnaire (SMS-II adapted; Pellier et al., 2013) on motivation levels and their pole vaulting performance achieve-ment. This was evaluated using a pre-and post-assessment design of 7-weeks pole vault teaching. Obtained results concern the reliability and the validity of the sport motivation scales questionnaire. Cluster analyses revealed two motivational profiles: non-self-determined and self-deter-mined levels of motivation. The self-determined motivation profile was correlated to the highest pole vault performance. The theoretical and practical implications for the measurement of stu-dents’ motivation in pole vault practice are discussed. The effects of motivational profiles on stu-dents’ pole vault achievement are perceived.

Share and Cite:

Derbali, C. , Elloumi, A. and Matoussi, F. (2015) Didactics of Physical Education: The Case of Motivational Students Profiles in Pole Vaulting Performance. Creative Education, 6, 1349-1359. doi: 10.4236/ce.2015.612136.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Arbuckle, J. L. (2011). Amos 20 User’s Guide (Example 26, pp. 385-408). Chicago, IL: SPSS Inc.
[2] Baard, P. P., Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2004). Intrinsic Need Satisfaction: A Motivational Basis of Performance and Well-Being in Two Work Settings. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 34, 2045-2068.
[3] Biddle, S. J. H., & Wang, J. C. K. (2003). Motivation and Self-Perception Profiles and Links with Physical Activity in Adolescent Girls. Journal of Adolescence, 26, 687-701.
[4] Biddle, S., & Goudas, M. (1997). Effort Is Virtuous: Teacher Preferences of Pupil Effort, Ability and Grading in Physical Education. Educational Research, 39, 350-355.
[5] Boiché, J. C. S., Sarrazin, P. G., Grouzet, F. M. E., Pelletier, L. G., & Chanal, J. P. (2008). Students’ Motivational Profiles and Achievement Outcomes in Physical Education: A Self-Determination Perspective. Journal of Educational Psychology, 100, 688-701.
[6] Brière, N. M., Vallerand, R. J., Blais, M. R., & Pelletier, L. G. (1995). Development and Validation of a Measure of Intrinsic, Extrinsic and Amotivation in the Sport Context: The Echelle de Motivation dans les Sports (EMS). International Journal of Sport Psychology, 26, 465-489.
[7] Cattell, R. B. (1966). The Data Box: Its Ordering of Total Resources in Terms of Possible Relational Systems. In R. B. Cattell (Ed.), Handbook of Multivariate Experimental Psychology (pp. 67-128). Chicago, IL: Rand-McNally.
[8] Chanal, J. P., Marsh, H. W., Sarrazin, P. G., & Bois, J. E. (2005). Big-Fish-Little-Pond Effects on Gymnastics Self-Concept: Social Comparison Processes in a Physical Setting. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 27, 53-70.
[9] Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (1985). Intrinsic Motivation and Self-Determination in Human Behavior. New York: Plenum.
[10] Deci, E. L., Vallerand, R. J., Pelletier, L. G., & Ryan, R. M. (1991). Motivation in Education: The Self-Determination Perspective. Educational Psychologist, 26, 325-346.
[11] Deci, E., & Ryan, R. (2002). Handbook of Self-Determination. Rochester, NY: University of Rochester Press.
[12] Fairchild, A. J., Horst, S. J., Finney, S. J., & Barron, K. E. (2005). Evaluating Existing and New Validity Evidence for the Academic Motivation Scale. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 30, 331-358.
[13] Friederichs, S. A., Bolman, C., Oenema, A., & Lechner, L. (2015). Profiling Physical Activity Motivation Based on Self-Determination Theory: A Cluster Analysis Approach. BMC Psychology, 3, 1-12.
[14] Gagné, M., Ryan, R., & Bargmann, K. (2003). Autonomy Support and Need Satisfaction in the Motivation and Well-Being of Gymnasts. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 15, 372-390.
[15] Gillet, N., Lafreniere, M. A., Vallerand, R. J., Huart, I., & Fouquereau, E. (2014). The Effects of Autonomous and Controlled Regulation of Performance-Approach Goals on Well-Being: A Process Model. British Journal of Social Psychology, 53, 154-174.
[16] Gillet, N., Vallerand, R. J., & Paty, B. (2013). Situational Motivational Profiles and Performance with Elite Performers. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 43, 1200-1210.
[17] Grolnick, W. S., & Ryan, R. M. (1989). Parent Styles Associated with Children’s Self-Regulation and Competence in School. Journal of Educational Psychology, 81, 143-154.
[18] Gwet, K. L. (2008a). Computing Inter-Rater Reliability and Its Variance in the Presence of High Agreement. British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology, 61, 29-48.
[19] Hagger, M. S., Chatzisarantis, N. L. D., Culverhouse, T., & Biddle, S. J. H. (2003). The Process by Which Perceived Autonomy Support in Physical Education Promotes Leisure-Time Physical Activity Intentions and Behavior: A Trans-Contextual Model. Journal of Educational Psychology, 95, 784-795.
[20] Hair Jr., J. F., Anderson, R. E., Tatham, R. L., & Black, W. C. (1998). Multivariate Data Analysis (5th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
[21] Lepper, M. R., & Henderlong, J. (2000). Turning “Play” into “Work” and “Work” into “Play”: 25 Years of Research on Intrinsic versus Extrinsic Motivation. In C. Sansone, & J. M. Harackiewicz (Eds.), Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation: The Search for Optimal Motivation and Performance (pp. 257-307). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
[22] Lonsdale, C., Hodge, K., & Rose, E. A. (2008). The Development of the Behavioral Regulation in Sport Questionnaire (BRSQ): Instrument Development and Initial Validity Evidence. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 30, 323-335.
[23] Mageau, G., & Vallerand, R. (2003). The Coach and Athlete Relationship: A Motivational Model. Journal of Sports Sciences, 21, 883-904.
[24] Molanorouzi, K., Khoo, S., & Morris, T. (2015). Motives for Adult Participation in Physical Activity: Type of Activity, Age, and Gender. BMC Public Health, 15, 66.
[25] Pelletier, L. G., Rocchi, M. A., Vallerand, R. J., Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2013). Validation of the Revised Sport Motivation Scale (SMS-II). Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 14, 329-341.
[26] Pelletier, L., Fortier, M., Vallerand, R., & Brière, N. (2001). Associations among Perceived Autonomy Support, Forms of Self-Regulation, and Persistence: A Prospective Study. Motivation and Emotion, 25, 279-306.
[27] Pintrich, P. R., & Maehr, M. L. (2002). Advances in Motivation and Achievement: New Directions in Measures and Methods. Oxford: Elsevier Science.
[28] Reeve, J. (2002). Self-Determination Theory Applied to Educational Settings. In E. Deci, & R. Ryan (Eds.), Handbook of Self-Determination Research (pp. 183-203). Rochester, NY: The University of Rochester Press.
[29] Rouse, P. C., Ntoumanis, N., & Duda, J. L. (2013). Effects of Motivation and Depletion on the Ability to Resist the Temptation to Avoid Physical Activity. International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 11, 39-56.
[30] Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2007). Active Human Nature: Self-Determination Theory and the Promotion and Maintenance of Sport, Exercise, and Health. In M. S. Hagger, & N. L. D. Chatzisarantis (Eds.), Intrinsic Motivation and Self-Determination in Exercise and Sport (pp. 1-19). Leeds: Human Kinetics Europe Ltd.
[31] Standage, M., Duda, J. L., & Ntoumanis, N. (2003). A Model of Contextual Motivation in Physical Education: Using Constructs from Self-Determination and Achievement Goal Theories to Predict Physical Activity Intentions. Journal of Educational Psychology, 95, 97-110.
[32] Standage, M., Duda, J., & Ntoumanis, N. (2006). Students’ Motivational Processes and Their Relationship to Teacher Rating in School Physical Education: A Self-Determination Theory Approach. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 77, 100-110.
[33] Trouilloud, D., & Sarrazin, P. (2002). L’effet Pygmalion existe-t-il? Influence des attentes des enseignants sur la motivation et la réussite des élèves. Science et Motricité, 46, 69-94.
[34] Vallerand, R. J. (1997). Toward a Hierarchical Model of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation. In M. P. Zanna (Ed.), Advances in Experimental Social Psychology (Vol. 29, pp. 271-360). New York: Academic Press.
[35] Vallerand, R. J. (2007). Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation in Sport and Physical Activity: A Review and a Look at the Future. In G. Tennenbaum, & R. Eklund (Eds.), Handbook of Sport Psychology (3rd ed., pp. 59-83). New York: John Wiley & Sons.
[36] Vallerand, R. J., & Fortier, M. N. (1998). Measures of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation in Sport and Physical Activity: A Review and Critique. In J. L. Duda (Ed.), Advances in Sport and Exercise Psychology Measurement (pp. 81-101). Morgantown, WV: Fitness Information Technology.
[37] Vallerand, R. J., Blais, M., Brière, N., & Pelletier, L. G. (1989). Construction et validation de l’échelle de motivation en éducation (EME) [Construction and Validation of the Educational Motivation Scale (EMS)]. Revue Canadienne des Sciences du Comportement, 21, 323-349.
[38] Wilson, P. M., & Rodgers, W. M. (2004). The Relationship between Perceived Autonomy Support, Exercise Regulations and Behavioural Intentions in Women. Psychology of Sport & Exercise, 5, 229-242.
[39] Wilson, P. M., Nehl, E., & Baker, F. (2006). Predicting Physical Activity and Outcome Expectations in Cancer Survivors: An Application of Self-Determination Theory. Psycho-Oncology, 15, 567-578.

Copyright © 2022 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.