Quality of Semi-Prepared Products from Rainbow Trout Waste (Onchorynchus mykiss) by Using Different Technological Strategics


The consumption of freshwater fish and fish products has gradually grown worldwide over the last decades, generating a proportional waste increase. The objective of the present study was to assess the chemical and bacteriological quality of restructured fish product, meatball-type, prepared with rainbow trout (Onchorynchus mykiss) waste added of 1% transglutaminase (MTG), 4% textured soy protein (TSP) and replacing part of the sodium chloride with potassium chloride (75%/25%) as described below: T1—starch addition (control); T2—MTG addition (1%); T3—soy protein addition (4%); T4—soy protein addition (4%) and MTG addition (1%); T5—soy protein addition (4%), MTG addition (1%) and partial replacement of salt (75% NaCl/25% KCl). Total aerobic mesophilic bacteria (TAMB), 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), pH determination and quantification of biogenic amines were performed on the day after manufacturing (P0) and after 60 days of storage (P1) at -25℃ ± 2℃. The results showed that there was no significant difference (p < 0.05) of microbiological quality, TBARS and pH after storage. T4 presented the lowest total biogenic amine content (256.84 mg/kg) whereas T3 and T5 had the highest value (791.36 and 707.19 mg/kg, respectively) in this parameter. Putrescine was the biogenic amine that presented the highest concentration (504.00 mg/kg) in T3 and cadaverine that presented the smallest concentration (0.36 mg/kg) in T4. The use of technological strategies for developing new products with non-commercial fillets kept the most standards, having changes only in some biogenic amines.

Share and Cite:

Palmeira, K. , Mársico, E. , Doro, L. , Lemos, M. , Teixeira, C. , Paschoalin, V. , Monteiro, M. and Júnior, C. (2014) Quality of Semi-Prepared Products from Rainbow Trout Waste (Onchorynchus mykiss) by Using Different Technological Strategics. Food and Nutrition Sciences, 5, 571-580. doi: 10.4236/fns.2014.56067.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Contreras-Guzman, E.S. (2002) Bioquímica de Pescados e Invertebrados. CECTA-USACH Santiago, 309 p.
[2] FAO (2008) Pesca e Departamento da Aquicultura: O Estado Mundial da Pesca e da Aquicultura.
[3] Kalac, P. and Krausova, P. (2005) A Review of Dietary Polyamines: Formation, Implications of Growth and Health and Occurrence in Foods. Food Chemistry, 90, 219-230.
[4] Monteiro, M.L.G., Marsico E.T., Teixeira C.E., Mano S.B., Conte Junior, C.A. and Vital, H.C. (2012) Validade Comercial de Filés de Tilapia do Nilo (Oreochromisniloticus) Resfriados Embalados em Atmosfera Modificada e Irradiados. Ciência Rural, 42, 737-743. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0103-84782012000400027
[5] Castro-Briones, M., Calderón, G.N., Velzquez, G., Rubio, M.S., Vazquez, M. and Ramírez, J.A. (2009) Mechanical and Functional Properties of Beef Products Obtained Using Microbial Transglutaminase with Treatments of PreHeating Followed by Cold Binding. Meat Science, 83, 229-238. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2009.05.002
[6] Torres, E. and Okani, E.T. (1997) Teste de TBA: Ranco em Alimentos. Revista Nacional da Carne, 248, 68-76.
[7] Ferreira, M.S., Marsico, E.T., Medeiros, R.J., Pombo, C.R., Freitas, M.Q., Sao Clemente, S.C. and Conte Junior, C.A. (2012) Comparacao das Características Físico-Químicas e Sensoriais de Hambúrgueres de Carne Bovina Elaborados com Cloreto de Sódio, Polifosfato e Transglutaminase. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinaria, 34, 52-60.
[8] Silva, M.S., Naves, M.M.V., Oliveira, R.B. and Leite, O.S.M. (2006) Composicao Química e Valor Protéico do Resíduo de soja em Relacao ao Grao de Soja. Ciência e Tecnologia de Alimentos, 26, 571-576.
[9] Marquez, E., Arévalo, E., Barboza, Y., Benítes, B., Rangel, L. and Archile, A. (2006) Efecto de la Concentración de Transglutaminasa y Tiempo de Reacción en la Estabilidad de Productos Rees-tructurados. Revista Cent, 16, 662-667.
[10] Ruiz-Capillas, C. and Moral, A. (2001) Correlation between Biochemical and Sensory Quality Indices in Hake Stored in Ice. Food Research International, 34, 441-447. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0963-9969(00)00189-7
[11] Rodrigues, B.L., Alvares, T.S., Costa, M.P., Sampaio, G.S.L., De la Torre, C.A.L., Marsico, E.T. and Conte Júnior, C.A. (2013) Concentration of Biogenic Amines in Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) Preserved in Ice and Its Relationship with Physicochemical Parameters of Quality. Aquaculture Research & Development, 4, 1-4.
[12] Yokoyama, K., Nio, N. and Kikuchi, Y. (2004) Properties and Application of Microbial Transglutaminase. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, 64, 447-454. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00253-003-1539-5
[13] APHA—American Public Health Association (2001) Compendium of Methods for the Microbiological Examination of Foods. Washington.
[14] Tarladgis, B., Watts, B.M. and Yonathan, M. (1960) Distillation Method for Determination of Malonaldehyde in Rancid Food. Journal of American Oil Chemistry Society, 37, 44-48. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02630824
[15] Monteiro, M.L.G., Marsico, E.T., Viriato, I.M., Souza, J.M.L. and Conte Junior, C.A. (2012) Preparation of Added Value Byproducts from the Waste Material of Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) Processing. Journal of Aquaculture Research & Development, 3, 1-5. http://dx.doi.org/10.4172/2155-9546.1000150
[16] Conte Junior, C.A., Peixoto, B.T.M., Lopes, M.M., Franco, R.M., Freitas, M.Q., Fernandez, M. and Mano, S.B. (2010) Effect of Modified Atmosphere Packaging on the Growth/Survival of Yersinia enterocolitica and Natural Flora on Fresh Poultry Sausage. In: Méndez Vilas, A., Eds., Current Research, Technology and Education Topics in Applied Microbiology and Microbial Biotechnology, Badajoz, 1217-1223.
[17] Lazaro de la Torre, C.A., Conte Junior, C.A., Cunha, F.L., Marsico, E.T., Mano, S.B. and Franco, R.M. (2013) Validation of an HPLC Methodology for the Identification and Quantification of Biogenic Amines in Chicken Meat. Food Analytical Methods, 6, 1-8.
[18] ICMSF (2002) Microrganisms in Foods 7.Microbiological Testing in Food Safety Management. Kluwer Academic/ Plenum Publishers, New York.
[19] Simsek, A. and Killic, B. (2013) Effects of Marination, Cooking and Storage on Physico-Chemical and Microbiological Properties of Ready to Eat Trout Doner Kebab. Journal für Verbraucherschutz und Lebensmittelsicherheit, 8, 165174. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00003-013-0825-0
[20] Marengoni, N.G., Pozza, M.S.S., Braga, G.C., Lazzeri, D.B., Castilha, L.D., Bueno, G.W., Pasquetti, T.J. and Polese, C. (2009) Caracterizacao Microbiológica, Sensorial e Centesimal de fishburgers de Carne de Tilapia Mecanicamente Separada. Revista Brasileira de Saúde e Producao Animal, 10, 168-176.
[21] Silva, S.R. and Fernandes, E.C.S. (2010) Aproveitamento da Corvina (Argyrosomus regius) para Elaboracao do Fishburger. Caderno Pesqueiro, 17, 67-70.
[22] Sales, P.V.G., De Cól, C.D. and Souza, F.G. (2012) Avaliacao da Qualidade do Fishburger de Caranha. Enciclopédia Biosfera, 8, 259-264.
[23] Moura, A.P., Mayer, M., Landgraf, A.M. and Tenuta, F. (2003) Qualidade Química e Microbiológica do CamaraoRosa Comercializada em Sao Paulo. Brazilian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 39, 5-9.
[24] Rodrigues, B.L., Santos, L.R., Marsico, E.T., Camarinha, C.C., Mano, S.B. and Conte Junior, C.A. (2012) Qualidade Físico-química do Pescado Utilizado na Elaboracao de Sushis e Sashimis de Atum e Salmao Comercializados no Município do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. Semina: Ciências Agrarias, 33, 1849-1856.
[25] Okeyo, G.O., Lokuruka, M.N. and Matofari, J.W. (2009) Nutritional Composition and Shelf Life for the Lake Vitoria Nile Perch (Latesniloticus) Stored in Ice. African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development, 9, 1-6.
[26] Jay, J.M. (2005) Microbiologia de Alimentos. Artmed.
[27] Kyrana, V.R., Lougovois, V.P. and Valsamis, D.S. (1997) Assessment of Shelf-Life of Maricultured Gilthead Sea Bream (Sparusaurata) Stored in ice. International Journal of Food Science Technology, 32, 339-347.
[28] Osawa, C.C., Felício, P.E. and Goncalves, L.A.G. (2005) Teste de TBA Aplicado a Carnes e Derivados: Métodos Tradicionais, Modificados e Alternativos. Revista Química Nova, 28, 655.
[29] Rasmussen, R.S. and Ostenfeld, T.H. (2000) Effect of Growth Rate on Quality Traits and Feed Utilization of Rainbow Trout (Oncorhyncus mykiss) and Brook Trout (Salvelinus fontinalis). Aquaculture, 184, 327-337.
[30] Silva, J.J. and Chamul, R.S. (2000) Composition of Marine and Freshwater Finfish and Shellfish Species and Their Products. In: Marine and Freshwater Products Handbook, Technomic Publishing Company, Inc., 31-46.
[31] Colla, L.M. and Prentice-Hernandez, C. (2003) Congelamento e Descongelamento—Sua Influencia Sobre os Alimentos.Vetor-Revista de Ciências Exatas e Engenharias, 13, 53-66.
[32] Ozer, O. and Saricoban, C. (2010) The Effects of Butylated Hydroxyanisole, Ascorbic Acid, and α-Tocopherol on Some Quality Characteristics of Mechanically Deboned Chicken Patty during Freezer Storage. Czech Journal of Food Sciences, 28, 150-160.
[33] Al-Kahtani, H.A., Abu-Tarboush, H.M., Bajaber, A.S., Atia, M., Abou-Arab, A.A. and El-Mojaddidi, M.A. (1996) Chemical Changes After Irradiation and Post-Irradiation Storage in Tilapia and Spanish Mackerel. Journal of Food Science, 61, 729-733. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.1996.tb12191.x
[34] Shetty, K., Paliyath, G., Pometto, A. and Levin, R.E. (2006) Food Biotechnology. CRC Press (Taylor & Francis), Boca Raton.
[35] Silla-Santos, M.H. (1996) Biogenic Amines: Their Importance in Foods. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 29, 213-231.
[36] Ruiz-Capillas, C., Herrero, A.M. and Jimenez-Colmenero, F. (2011) Reduction of Biogenic Amine Levels in Meat and Meat Products. In: Rai, M. and Chikindas, M., Eds., Natural Antimicrobial in Food Safety and Quality, 154-166.
[37] McCabe, B.J. (1986) Dietary Tyramine and Other Precursors Amines in MAOI Regimens: A Review. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 86, 1059-1064.
[38] Lyte, M. (2004) The Biogenic Aine Tyramine Modulates the Adherente of Escherichia coli O157:O7 to Intestinal Mucosa. Journal of Food Protection, 6, 878-883.
[39] Teodoro, J.C. (2008) Influência das Condicoes de Alimentacao de Glicerol e Ornitina na Producao de Acido Clavulanico por Streptomyces clavuligerus. Tese de Doutorado, Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, Sao Carlos (SP).
[40] Izquierdo, P., Allara, M., Torres, G., Sanchez, M., Pena, G. and Sangronis, M. (2004) Aminas Biógenas y Crecimiento Bacteriano en Carne de Hamburguesas. Revista Científica, 14, 7-12.
[41] Sattler, J., Hafner, D. and Klotter, H.J. (1988) Food-Induced Histaminosis as an Epidemiological Problem: Plasma Histamine Elevation and Haemodynamic Alterations after Oral Histamine Administration and Blockade of Diamine Oxidase (DAO). Agents and Actions, 23, 361-365. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02142588
[42] Onal, A. (2007) A Review: Current Analytical Methods for the Determination of Biogenic Amines in Foods. Food Chemistry, 103, 1475-1486. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2006.08.028
[43] C.E. (Comunidade Européia) (2005) Relativo à Critérios Microbiológicos Aplicaveis Aos Gêneros Alimentícios. Jornal Oficial da Uniao Européia, 338.
[44] Gardini, F., Martuscelli, M., Caruso, M.C., Galgano, F., Crudele, M.A., Favati, F., Guerzoni, M.E. and Suzzi, G. (2001) Effects of pH, Temperature and NaCl Concentration on the Growth Kinetics, Proteolytic Activity and Biogenic Amine Production of Enterococcus faecalis. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 64, 105-117.
[45] Giraffa, G. (2002) Enterococci from Foods. FEMS MicrobiologyReviews, 26, 163-171.
[46] Kuda, T., Mihara, T. and Yano, T. (2007) Detection of Histamine and Histamine-Related Bacteria in Fish-Nukazuke, a Salted and Fermented Fish with Rice-Bran, by Simple Colorimetric Microplate Assay. Food Control, 18, 677-681.
[47] Navarrete, P., Magne, F., Mardones, P., Riveros, M., Opazo, R., Suau, A., Pochart, P. and Romero, J. (2010) Molecular Analysis of Intestinal Microbiota of Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). FEMS Microbiology Ecology, 71, 148156. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1574-6941.2009.00769.x
[48] Taylor, S.L. and Speckhard, M.W. (1983) Isolation of Histamine-Producing Bacteria from frozen Tuna. Marine Fisheries Review, 45, 4-6.
[49] Chen, H.C., Huang, Y.R., Hsu, H.H., Lin, C.S., Chen, W.C., Lin, C.M. and Tsai, Y.H. (2010) Determination of Histamine and Biogenic Amines in Fish Cubes (Tetrapturus angustirostris) Implicated in a Food-Borne Poisoning. Food Control, 21, 13-18.
[50] Ruiz-Capillas, C. and Moral, A. (2005) Free Amino Acids in Muscle of Norway Lobster (Nephrops novergicus (L.)) in Controlled and Modified Atmospheres during Chilled Storage. Food Chemistry, 86, 85-91.
[51] Brink, B., Ten, D., Joosten, H.M.L.J. and Huis, I.V. (1990) Occurrence and Formation of Biologically Active Amines in Foods. International Journal of Food Microbology, 11, 73-84.
[52] Ruiz-Capillas, C. and Jiménez-Colmenero, F. (2004) Biogenic Amine Content in Spanish Retail Market Meat Products Treated with Protective Atmosphere and High Pressure. European Food Research and Technology, 218, 237-241.
[53] FDA (2001) Scombrotoxin (Histamine) Formation (A Chemical Hazard). Fish and Fisheries Products Hazards and Controls Guidance, 3rd Edition.
[54] Bardócz, S. (1995) Polyamines in Food and Their Consequences for Food Quality and Human Health. Trends in Food Sciences & Technology, 6, 341-346. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0924-2244(00)89169-4
[55] Hernandez-Jover, T., Izquierdo-Pulido, M., Veciana-Nogués, M.T., Mariné-Font, A. and Viidal-Carou, M.C. (1997) Biogenic Amine and Polyamine Contents in Meat and Meat Products. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry, 45, 2098-2102. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf960790p
[56] Gloria, M.B.A. (2006) Bioactive Amines. Food Science and Technology, 149, 13.
[57] Virgili, R., Saccani, G., Gabba, L., Tanzi, E. and Soresi Bordini, C. (2007) Changes of Free Amino Acids and Biogenic Amines during Extended Ageing of Italian Dry-Cured Ham. LWT-Food Science and Technology, 40, 871-878.

Copyright © 2023 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.