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Perspectives for Defining Student Teacher Performance-Based Teaching Skills Indicators to Provide Formative Feedback through Learning Analytics

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DOI: 10.4236/ce.2015.610093    3,314 Downloads   3,977 Views   Citations

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to analyze the possibilities for performance-based evaluation of student teachers’ teaching skills in their field practice using learning analytics (LA)—a computer-based instructional system for documenting assessment results, and providing specified feedback on the achievement of expected objectives and suggestions for corrective and further learning activities. The research literature on LA applications in pre-service teacher education reveals that its application at this level of sophistication calls for reliable specific performance-based indicators of teaching to model teaching competences. Such defined indicators should allow for the statistical modeling of teachers’ progression in teaching skills. Our analysis of the literature regarding defining teaching and teacher competence standards and identifying performance-based indicators for assessing progress in teaching skills, led us to conclude there was no formal procedure for deducting performance-based indicators of teaching competence, except expert ratings coordinated by the general ideas of teaching quality. The available performance-based assessment matrices (representing performance levels by teaching tasks) of teaching competence that are used by teacher educators tend to be context-sensitive and call for adaptation when used in the conditions of another country. Also, the reporting of teaching activities (typically using a portfolio format) and quantifying the entries using performance indicators for LA requires a highly formalized coding system to preserve the semantics of the initial data in the models of progress in teaching skills. For avoiding the risk of introducing too many atomic indicator behaviours of student teachers, focusing only on essential teaching competencies via the application of the emerging concept of core practices is suggested.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

Krull, E. and Leijen, Ä. (2015) Perspectives for Defining Student Teacher Performance-Based Teaching Skills Indicators to Provide Formative Feedback through Learning Analytics. Creative Education, 6, 914-926. doi: 10.4236/ce.2015.610093.

References

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http://download.ei-ie.org/Docs/WebDepot/Quality%20Educators.pdf
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2923.2007.02944.x
[68] Dringus, L. P. (2012). Learning Analytics Considered Harmful. Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks, 16, 87-100.
[69] Ennet, P. (2014). The Study Aid Being Developed by Estonians Accelerates Almost 10 Times Learning of Foreign Languages (Eestlaste loodav ?ppevahend kiirendab keele?pet kuni kümme korda).
http://teadus.err.ee/v/haridus/6a25856b-99b8-49c2-b867-b195925d27f9
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http://www.epass.eu/en/over-epass/
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http://kmi.open.ac.uk/publications/pdf/kmi-12-01.pdf
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0022487114533800
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13540600902875340
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/19415250903016707
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[82] Liaqat, A., Hatala, M., & Gasevic, D. (2012). A Qualitative Evaluation of Evolution of a Learning Analytics Tool. Computers & Education, 58, 470-489.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2011.08.030
[83] Looney, J. (2011). Developing High-Quality Teachers: Teacher Evaluation for Improvement. European Journal of Education, 46, 440-455.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1465-3435.2011.01492.x
[84] Medley, M. (1982). Teacher Competency Testing and the Teacher Educator. Charlottesville, VA: University of Virgia, Bureau of Educational Research.
[85] Medley, D. (1985). Issues and Problems in the Validation of Teaching and Teacher Professional Behaviours. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association, Chicago, 31 March-4 April 1985.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/0142159X.2010.513719
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http://www.nbpts.org/five-core-propositions#sthash.rdAKZJ2w.dpuf
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http://www.nbpts.org/certificate-areas
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0022487105284045
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http://www.pacttpa.org/_files/Publications_and_Presentations/PACT_
Technical_Report_March07.pdf
[91] Roth, R. A. (1996). Standards for Certification, Licensure, and Accreditation. In J. Sikula (Ed.), Handbook of Research on Teacher Education (2nd ed., pp. 242-278). New York: Simon & Schuster Macmillan.
[92] SBL (2004). Competence Requirements Teachers.
http://www.bekwaamheidsdossier.nl/cms/bijlagen/SBL_Introduction.pdf
[93] Shulman, L. (1992). Research on Teaching: A Historical and Personal Perspective. In F. Oser, A. Dick, & J. Patry (Eds.), Effective and Responsible Teaching (pp. 14-29). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
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[95] Stodolsky, S. (1985). Teacher Evaluation: The Limits of Looking. Educational Research, 13, 11-18.
[96] Tigelaar, D. E. H., & van Tartwijk, J. (2010). The Evaluation of Prospective Teachers in Teacher Education. In P. Peterson, E. Baker, & B. McGaw (Eds.), International Encyclopedia of Education (3rd ed., pp. 511-517). Amsterdam: Elsvier.
[97] Van der Schaaf, M., Stokking, K., & Verloop, N. (2008a). Teacher Beliefs and Teacher Behaviour in Portfolio Assessment. Teaching and Teacher Education, 24, 1691-1704.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tate.2008.02.021
[98] Van der Schaaf, M., Stokking, K., & Verloop, N. (2008b). Developing and Validating a Design for Teacher Portfolio Assessment. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, 33, 245-262.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02602930701292522
[99] Van der Schaaf, M. F., & Stokking, K. M. (2011). Construct Validation of Content Standards for Teaching. Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, 55, 273-289.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00313831.2011.576878
[100] Vandevoort, L. G., Amrein-Beardsley, A., & Berliner, D. C. (2004). National Board Certified Teachers and Their Students’ Achievement. Education Policy Analysis Archives, 12, 46.
http://dx.doi.org/10.14507/epaa.v12n46.2004
[101] WATCHME (2014) WATCHME Workplace-Based E-Assessment Technology for Competency-Based Higher Multi-Professional Education.
http://cordis.europa.eu/project/rcn/189095_en.html
[102] Zeichner, K. M. (1983). Alternative Paradigms of Teacher Education. Journal of Teacher Education, 34, 3-9.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/002248718303400302
[103] Zgaga, P. (2011). Why We Need to Learn One from Another and Work Together? In M. V. Zuljan, & J. Vogrinc (Eds.), European Dimensions of Teacher Education—Similarities and Differences (pp. 11-31). Ljubljana: Faculty of Education, University of Ljubljana, Slovenia and the National School of Leadership in Education. https://www.pef.uni-lj.si/fileadmin/Datoteke/Zalozba/pdf/Zuljan_
Vogrinc_Teacher_education.pdf
[104] Ziebarth-Bovill, J., Kritzer, J., & Bovill, R. (2012). The Essential Criteria for Hiring First Year Teacher Candidates. Education, 133, 125-138.

  
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