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Morrissey, M.C., Harman, E.A. and Johnson, M.J. (1995) Resistance training modes: Specificity and effectiveness. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 27(5), 648- 660.

has been cited by the following article:

  • TITLE: Comparison of strength values and laterality in various muscle contractions between competitive swimmers and untrained persons

    AUTHORS: Shinichi Demura, Hiroki Aoki, Yuta Yamamoto, Shunsuke Yamaji

    KEYWORDS: Lsokinetic Strength; Lsometric Strength; Knee Extension and Flexion; Laterality

    JOURNAL NAME: Health, Vol.2 No.11, November 19, 2010

    ABSTRACT: Competitive swimmers may gain a specific training effect as the result of long term exercise in the water. This study aimed to compare isometric, non-isokinetic and isokinetic muscle strengths in competitive swimmers and untrained persons. Twelve young male adults without exercise experience for over three years and twelve swimmers with over 10 years of competitive swimming experience performed various strength tests. Non-isokinetic tests were evaluated using one repetition of maximum half squat, vertical jump, and drop jump. Isometric and isokinetic (60 and 180 deg/s) muscle strengths were measured by both legs in knee extension and flexion. There were no significant differences between non-isokinetic and isometric muscle strengths of both groups. On the other hand, all isokinetic parameters in both angular velocities were significantly larger in competitive swimmers. There was significant laterality of isokinetic strength in untrained persons, but not in competitive swimmers. In addition, right and left differences of isokinetic strength tended to be smaller in competitive swimmers. In conclusion, competitive swimmers tended to be superior only in isokinetic strength, which is a similar muscle contraction in the water, and have less right and left differences.