Identification and Recovery of Volatiles Organic Compounds (VOCs) in the Coffee-Producing Wastewater


The objectives of the present study were to recover and identify volatiles organic compounds (VOCs) in the wastewater (WW) coming from a soluble coffee industrial plant. For VOCs recover, the WW was concentrated by pervaporation using a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) membrane. Furthermore, the solid phase micro extraction (SPME) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) were used for VOCs identification. The multivariate method of principal component analysis (PCA) was performed to evaluate differences amongst the feed and concentrate streams. Regarding the number of VOCs identified in the wastewater (33) and permeate (72), a significant statistical difference at p < 0.05 was observed. Clusters discriminating were clearly observed, as the feed and permeate streams are compared. Thus, we can conclude that pervaporation process using a PDMS membrane was effective to recover different class of VOCs present in the aqueous effluent and can be recommended for industrial wastewater treatment.

Share and Cite:

Oliveira, A. , Cabral, L. , Bizzo, H. , Arruda, N. and Freitas, S. (2014) Identification and Recovery of Volatiles Organic Compounds (VOCs) in the Coffee-Producing Wastewater. Journal of Water Resource and Protection, 6, 375-380. doi: 10.4236/jwarp.2014.64039.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] ABIC (2013).
[2] Liang, L., Dickson, J.M., Jiang, J. and Brook, M.A. (2004) Effect of Low Flow Rate on Pervaporation of 1,2-Dichloroethane with Novel Polydimethylsiloxane Composite Membranes. Journal of Membrane Science, 231, 71-79.
[3] Ribeiro, J.S., Salva, T.J.G., Thomaziello, R.A. and Ferreira, M.M.C. (2009) Prediction of Sensory Properties of Brazilian Arabica Roasted Coffees by Headspace Solid Phase Microextraction-Gas Chromatography and Partial Least Squares. Analytica Chimica Acta, 634, 172-179.
[4] Assis, A.R., Bizzo, H.R., Matta, V.M. and Cabral, L.M.C. (2007) Recuperacao e concentracao de componentes do aroma de caju (Anacardium occidentale L.) por pervaporacao. Ciencia e Tecnologia de Alimentos, 27, 349-354.
[5] Cassano, A., Frigoli, A., Tagarelli, A., Sindona, G. and Drioli, E. (2006) Integrated Membrane Process for the Production of Highly Nutritional Kiwifruit Juice. Desalination, 189, 21-30.
[6] Pereira, C.C., Ribeiro, J.R., Nobrega, R. and Borges, C.P. (2006) Pervaporative Recovery of Volatile Aroma Compounds from Fruit Juices. Journal of Membrane Science, 274, 1-23.
[7] Brooks, P.R. and Livingstone, A.G. (1995) Aqueous-Aqueous Extraction of Organic Pollutants through Tubular Silicone Rubber Membranes. Journal of Membrane Science, 104, 119-139.
[8] Roberts, D.T., Pollien, P. and Milo, C. (2000) Solid-Phase Microextraction Method Development for Headspace Analysis of Volatile Flavour Compounds. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 48, 2430-2437.
[9] Adams, R.P. (2007) Identification of Essential Oil Components by Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry. Allured Publishing Co., Illinois.
[10] Karlsson, H. and Tragardh, G. (1996) Applications of Pervaporation in Food Processing—Review. Trends in Food Science & Technology, 7, 78-83.
[11] Baudot, A. and Marin, M. (1996) Dairy Aroma Recovery by Pervaporation. Journal of Membrane Science, 120, 207-220.
[12] Olsson, J. and Tragardh, G. (1999) Influence of Temperature on Membrane Permeability during Pervaporation Aroma Recovery. Separation Science and Technology, 34, 1643-1648.
[13] Arruda, N.P., Hovell, A.M.C., Rezende, C.M., Freitas, S.P., Couri, S. and Bizzo, H.R. (2011) Discriminacao entre estádios de maturacao e tipos de processamento de pós-colheita de cafés arábica por microextracao em fase sólida e análise de componentes principais. Quimica Nova, 34, 819-834.
[14] Dikshith, T.S.S. (2011) Handbook of Chemicals and Safety. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.

Copyright © 2023 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.