A Closed Model of the Universe


A closed model of the universe was constructed according to the assumption that very minor fraction of the dark energy transfers so slowly to matter and radiation. The cosmological parameter is no longer fixed but represents so slowly decreasing function with time. In this model the universe expands to maximum limit at tme = 26.81253 Gyr, then it will contract to a big crunch at tbc = 53.6251 Gyr. Observational tests to the closed cosmic model were illustrated. Distributions of the universe expansion and contraction speed established in this model which indicated that the expansion speed in the early universe is appreciably high, then it will decrease rapidly until it vanishes at tme. However, the contraction speed of the universe increases continuously until the time just before tbe. Distributions of the universe expansion and contraction acceleration were performed empirically which confirmed the previous result were performed empirically. In the closed cosmic model the universe history can be categorized into six main stages, these are the first radiation epoch, the first matter epoch, the first dark energy epoch, the last dark energy epoch, the last matter epoch and the last radiation epoch. Distributions of the density parameters of the radiation, matter, dark energy and the total density as well as the distributions of temperature of the radiation and non-relativistic matter were all investigated in this model at all epochs of the universe.

Share and Cite:

F. Bukhari, "A Closed Model of the Universe," International Journal of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Vol. 3 No. 2, 2013, pp. 189-198. doi: 10.4236/ijaa.2013.32022.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] F. A. Bukhari, “Five General Cosmic Models,” Journal of King Abdulaziz University: Science, Vol. 25, No. 1, 2013.
[2] F. A. Bukhari, “Cosmological Distances in Five General Cosmic Models,” International Journal of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 2013.
[3] J. V. Chunha, J. A. S. Lima and N. Pires, “Deflationary Cosmology: Observational Expressions,” Astronomy and Astrophysics, Vol. 390, No. 3, 2002, pp. 809-815. doi:10.1051/0004-6361:20020746
[4] J. A. S. Lima and M. Trodden, Physical Reviews D, Vol. 53, 1996, p. 4280.
[5] S. A. Bludman and M. Roos, “Quintessence Cosmology and the Cosmic Coincidence,” Physical Reviews D, Vol. 65, No. 4, 2002, Article ID: 043503. doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.65.043503
[6] I. Zlatev, L. Wang and P. J. Steinhardt, “Quintessence, Cosmic Coincidence, and the Cosmological Constant,” Physical Review Letters, Vol. 82, No. 5, 1999, pp. 896-899. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.82. 896

Copyright © 2024 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.