An Improved Protocol for Biginelli Reaction


[Hmim][Tfa] was used as catalyst for the Biginelli reaction under microwave heating. Low catalyst loading, reduced reaction time and operational simplicity are the main highlights of this protocol. The proposed protocol was found active in the synthesis of 30 different biologically active compounds.

Share and Cite:

V. Srivastava, "An Improved Protocol for Biginelli Reaction," Green and Sustainable Chemistry, Vol. 3 No. 2A, 2013, pp. 38-40. doi: 10.4236/gsc.2013.32A006.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] B. Ganem, “Strategies for Innovation in Multicomponent Reaction Design,” Accounts of Chemical Research, Vol. 42, 2009, pp. 463-472.
[2] L. A. Wessjohann, D. G. Rivera and O. E. Vercillo, “Multiple Multicomponent Macrocyclizations (MiBs): A Strategic Development toward Macrocycle Diversity,” Vol. 109, 2009, pp. 796-814
[3] P. Biginelli and P. Gazz, “Synthesis of 3,4-Dihydropyrimidin-2(1H)-Ones,” Chim Ital, Vol. 23, 1893, pp. 360-416.
[4] C. O. Kappe, “Biologically Active Dihydripyrimidones of the Bignelli-Type: A Literature Survey,” European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, Vol. 35, No. 12, 2000, pp. 1043-1052. doi:10.1016/S0223-5234(00)01189-2
[5] A. Kamal and A. A. Qureshi, “Syntheses of Some Substituted Di-Indolylmethanes in Aqueous Medium at Room Temperature,” Tetrahedron, Vol. 19, No. 4, 1963, pp. 513- 520. doi:10.1016/S0040-4020(01)98540-0
[6] D. Bandyopadhyay, S. Maldonado and B. K. Banik, A “Microwave-Assisted Bismuth Nitrate-Catalyzed Unique Route toward 1,4-Dihydropyridines,” Vol. 17, 2012, pp. 2643-2662.
[7] B. Vijayakumar and G. R. Rao, “Synthesis of 3,4-Dihy- dropyrimidin-2(1H)-Ones/thiones Using ZrOCl2/Mont K10 under Microwave Assisted Solvent-Free Conditions,” Vol. 19, 2012, pp. 491-497.
[8] R. S. Bhosale, S. V. Bhosale, S. V. Bhosale, T. Wangb and P. K. Zubaidhaa, “An Efficient, High Yield Protocol for the One-Pot Synthesis of Dihydropyrimidin-2(1H)-Ones Catalyzed by Iodine,” Vol. 45, 2004, pp. 9111-9113.
[9] H. Hazarkhani and B. Karimi, “N-Bromosuccinimide as an Almost Neutral Catalyst for Efficient Synthesis of Di- hydropyrimidinones under Microwave Irradiation,” Synthesis, Vol. 8, 2004, pp. 1239-1242.
[10] M. Syamla, “Recent Progress in Three-Component Reactions. An Update. 41:1-68. R. Nagarajan and P.T. Perumal, Chem. Lett., 2004, 33, (2009) 288.
[11] N. V. Plechkova and K. R. Seddon, “Applications of Ionic Liquids in the Chemical Industry,” Journal, Vol. 37, No. , 2008, pp. 123-150.
[12] V. Srivastava, “Ionic Liquid Mediated Recyclable Sul- phonimide Based Organocatalysis for Aldol Reaction,” Central European Journal of Chemistry, Vol. 8, No. 2, 2010, pp. 269-272. doi:10.2478/s11532-009-0140-x
[13] V. Srivastava, “Ionic-Liquid-Mediated MacMillan’s Catalyst for Diels-Alder Reaction,” Journal of Chemistry, Vol. 2013, 2013, pp. 1-9, Article ID: 954094. doi:10.1155/2013/954094
[14] V. Srivastava, “An Improved Protocol for the Preparation of New 1, 2, 3 Triazolium Based Ionic Liquids and Their Application as Solvent for Aldol Reaction,” Asymmetric Organocatalysis, Vol. 1, 2012, pp. 2-7. doi:10.2478/asorg-2012-0002
[15] V. Srivastava, “An Improved Protocol for the Aldehyde Olefination Reaction Using (bmim) (NTf2) as Reaction Medium,” Journal of Chemistry, Vol. 2013, 2013, pp. 1-4, Article ID: 439673. doi:10.1155/2013/439673
[16] M. Pucheault and V. Vaultier, “Task Specific Ionic Liquids and Task Specific Onium Salts,” Topics in Current Chemistry, Vol. 290, 2010, pp. 83-126. doi:10.1007/128_2008_33
[17] P. Lidstr?ma, J. Tierneyb, B. Wathey and J. Westmana, “Microwave Assisted Organic Synthesis—A Review,” Vol. 57, 2001, pp. 9225-9283.
[18] R. M. Palou, “Ionic Liquid and Microwave-Assisted Organic Synthesis: A ‘Green’ and Synergic Couple,” Journal of the Mexican Chemical Society, Vol. 51, 2007, pp. 252-264.
[19] B. L. Hayes, “Recent Advances in Microwave-Assisted Synthesis,” Aldrichimica Acta, Vol. 37, 2004, pp. 66-76.
[20] V. Singh, V. Sapehiyia, V. Srivastava and S. Harika, “ZrO2-Pillared Clay: An Efficient Catalyst for the Solventless Synthesis of Biologically Active Multifunctional Dihydropyrimidinones,” Catalysis Communications, Vol. 6, No. 1, 2006, pp. 57-81. doi:10.1016/j.catcom.2004.10.011
[21] T. U. Mayer, T. M. Kapoor, S. J. Haggarty, R. W. King, S. L. Schreiber and T. J. Mitchtison, “Small Molecule Inhibitor of Spindle Bipolarity Identified in a Phenotype-Based Screen,” Science, Vol. 286, No. 5441, 1999, pp. 971-974. doi:10.1126/science.286.5441.971
[22] Suresh and J. S. Sandhu, “Past, Present and Future of the Biginelli Reaction: A Critical Perspective,” ARKIVOC i, 2012, pp. 66-133.

Copyright © 2023 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.