Anti-Fatigue Effect of Blended Camellia oleifera Abel Tea Oil and Ge-132 in Mice

DOI: 10.4236/fns.2015.615152   PDF   HTML   XML   2,081 Downloads   2,676 Views   Citations

Abstract

Nowadays, people are busier and busier for working and living, and suffer a lot of pressure on their body or mind. Therefore, people are prone to have fatigue activity and decrease their working efficiency and happiness. It was reported that fatigue is a common symptom in the community, with up to half of the general population complaining of fatigue. More and more researchers devoted themselves to studying natural active ingredients in organism as the anti-fatigue drugs to release fatigue symptom. However, these natural ingredients were difficult to obtain from plants, animals and microorganisms by separating and purifying. In addition, some active substances have many side effects. In our study, we employed tea seed oil as main ingredients blended with bis-(carboxyethylgermanium) sesquioxide (Ge-132) to investigate the effects of anti-fatigue on mice by administrating mice with low dose, intermediate dose and high dose of tea seed oil complex for 0, 2 or 4 weeks. The specific tests of studying effects of anti-fatigue were body weight, weight-loaded force swimming, blood urea nitrogen, blood lactic acid and hepaticglycogen. And the results showed that appropriate level of tea seed oil complex could decrease the body weight and prolong the weight-loaded swimming time, and had an active effect on the bloodurea nitrogen, hepatic glycogen and blood lactic acid level mice, which significantly embodied the anti-fatigue activity of tea seed oil complex.

Share and Cite:

Hu, L. , Fang, X. , Du, M. and Zhang, J. (2015) Anti-Fatigue Effect of Blended Camellia oleifera Abel Tea Oil and Ge-132 in Mice. Food and Nutrition Sciences, 6, 1479-1487. doi: 10.4236/fns.2015.615152.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

References

[1] Afari, N. and Buchwald, D. (2003) Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: A Review. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 31, 167-194.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.160.2.221
[2] Pawlikowska, T., Chalder, T., Hirsch, S.R., Wallace, P., Wright, D.J.M. and Wessely, S.C. (1994) Population Based Study of Fatigue and Psychological Distress. BMJ, 308,763-766.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.308.6931.763
[3] Chen, J.R., Wang, T.J., Huang, H.Y., Chen, L.J., Huang, Y.S., Wang, Y.J. and Tseng, G.F. (2009) Fatigue Reversibly Reduced Cortical and Hippocampal Dendritic Spines Concurrent with Compromise of Motor Endurance and Spatial Memory. Neuroscience, 161, 1104-1113.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroscience.2009.04.022
[4] Akazawa, K.H., Cui, Y., Tanaka, M., Kataoka, Y., Yoneda, Y. and Watanabe, Y. (2010) Mapping of Regional Brain Activation in Response to Fatigue-Load and Recovery in Rats with c-Fosimmunohistochemistry. Neuroscience Research, 66, 372-379.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neures.2009.12.009
[5] Webster, D.M., Richter, L. and Kruglanski, A.W. (1996) On Leaping to Conclusions When Feeling Tired: Mental Fatigue Effects on Impressional Primacy. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 32, 181-195.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/jesp.1996.0009
[6] Negahban, H., Etemadi, M., Naghibi, S., Emrani, A., Yazdi, M.J.S., Salehi, R. and Bousari, A.M. (2013) The Effects of Muscle Fatigue on Dynamic Standing Balance in People with and without Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome. Gait & Posture, 37, 336-339.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gaitpost.2012.07.025
[7] Barbieri, F.A., Lee, Y.J., Gobbi, L.T.B., Pijnappels, M. and Van Diën, J.H. (2013) The Effect of Muscle Fatigue on the Last Stride before Stepping Down a Curb. Gait & Posture, 37, 542-546.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gaitpost.2012.09.015
[8] Kim, K.M., Yu, K.W., Kang, D.H., Koh, J.H., Hong, B.S. and Suh, H.J. (2001) Anti-Stress and Anti-Fatigue Effects of Fermented Rice Bran. Bioscience, Biotechnology and Biochemistry, 65, 2294-2296.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1271/bbb.65.2294
[9] Zhang, L.L., Wang, Y.M., Wu, D.M., Xu, M. and Chen, J.H. (2010) Comparisons of Antioxidant Activity and Total Phenolics of Camellia oleifera Abel Fruit Hull from Different Regions of China. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, 4, 1407-1411.
[10] Shao, P., Liu, Q., Fang, Z. and Sun, P. (2015) Chemical Composition, Thermal Stability and Antioxidant Properties of Tea Seed Oils Obtained by Different Extraction Methods: Supercritical Fluid Extraction Yields the Best Oil Quality. European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology, 117, 355-365.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ejlt.201400259
[11] Sahari, M. and Amooi, M. (2013) Tea Seed Oil: Extraction, Compositions, Applications, Functional and Antioxidant Properties. Academia Journal of Medicinal Plants, 1, 68-79.
[12] Sahari, M., Ataii, D. and Hamedi, M. (2004) Characteristics of Tea Seed Oil in Comparison with Sunflower and Olive Oils and Its Effect as a Natural Antioxidant. Journal of the American Oil Chemists’ Society, 81, 585-588.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11746-006-0945-0
[13] Lee, C.P. and Yen, G.C. (2006) Antioxidant Activity and Bioactive Compounds of Tea Seed (Camellia oleifera Abel.) Oil. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 54, 779-784.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf052325a
[14] Fedeli, E., Lanzani, A., Capella, P. and Jacini, G. (1966) Triterpene Alcohols and Sterols of Vegetable Oils. Journal of the American Oil Chemists’ Society, 43, 254-256.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02641098
[15] Zhang, B. and Zhou, Y. (1995) Effects of Tea Seed Oil and Soybean Oil on Oxygen Radical and Activities of Antioxidative Enzymes in Rat. Acta Nutrimenta Sinica, 17, 1432-1338.
[16] Kim, N.H., Choi, S.K., Kim, S.J., Moon, P.D., Lim, H.S., Choi, I.Y., Na, H.J., An, H.J., Myung, N.Y., Jeong, H.J., Um, J.Y., Hong, S.H. and Kim, H.M. (2008) Green Tea Seed Oil Reduces Weight Gain in C57BL/6J Mice and Influences Adipocyte Differentiation by Suppressing Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor-γ. Pflügers Archiv European Journal of Physiology, 457, 293-302.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00424-008-0537-y
[17] Kähkönen, M.P., Hopia, A.I., Vuorela, H.J., Rauha, J.-P., Pihlaja, K., Kujala, T.S. and Heinonen, M. (1999) Antioxidant Activity of Plant Extracts Containing Phenolic Compounds. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 47, 3954-3962.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf990146l
[18] Wu, C., Chen, R., Wang, X.S., Shen, B., Yue, W. and Wu, Q. (2013) Antioxidant and Anti-Fatigue Activities of Phenolic Extract from the Seed Coat of Euryale ferox Salisb and Identification of Three Phenolic Compounds by LC-ESI-MS/MS. Molecules, 18, 11003-11021.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules180911003
[19] Chen, M., Meng, H., Zhao, Y., Chen, F. and Yu, S. (2015) Antioxidant and in Vitro Anticancer Activities of Phenolics Isolated from Sugar Beet Molasses. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 15, 313.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12906-015-0847-5
[20] Faloona, G.R. and Levine, S.A. (1988) The Use of Organic Germanium in Chronic Epstein-Barr Virus Syndrome (CEBVS). Journal of Orthomolecular Medicine, 3, 29-31.
[21] Brutkiewicz, R.R. and Suzuki, F. (1986) Biological Activities and Antitumor Mechanism of an Immunopotentiating Organogermanium Compound, Ge-132 [Review]. In Vivo (Athens, Greece), 1, 189-203.
[22] Straus, S.E., Tosato, G., Armstrong, G., Lawley, T., Preble, O.T., Henle, W., Davey, R., Pearson, G., Epstein, J.A.Y., Brus, I. and Blaese, R.M. (1985) Persisting Illness and Fatigue in Adults with Evidence of Epstein-Barr Virus Infection. Annals of Internal Medicine, 102, 7-16.
http://dx.doi.org/10.7326/0003-4819-102-1-7
[23] Zhang, Y., Yao, X., Bao, B. and Zhang, Y. (2006) Anti-Fatigue Activity of a Triterpenoid-Rich Extract from Chinese Bamboo Shavings (Caulis bamfusae in Taeniam). Phytotherapy Research, 20, 872-876.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ptr.1965
[24] You, L., Zhao, M., Regenstein, J.M. and Ren, J. (2011) In Vitro Antioxidant Activity and in Vivo Anti-Fatigue Effect of Loach (Misgurnus anguillicaudatus) Peptides Prepared by Papain Digestion. Food Chemistry, 124, 188-194.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2010.06.007
[25] Moore, R. and Kauffman, N. (1970) Simultaneous Determination of Citrulline and Urea Using Diacetylmonoxime. Analytical Biochemistry, 33, 263-272.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0003-2697(70)90296-4
[26] Van Der Vies, J. (1954) Two Methods for the Determination of Glycogen in Liver. Biochemical Journal, 57, 410-416.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1042/bj0570410
[27] Wakayoshi, K., Yoshida, T., Udo, M., Kasai, T., Moritani, T., Mutoh, Y. and Miyashita, M. (1992) A Simple Method for Determining Critical Speed as Swimming Fatigue Threshold in Competitive Swimming. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 13, 367-371.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-2007-1021282
[28] Koh, J.H., Kim, K.M., Kim, J.M., Song, J.C. and Suh, H.J. (2003) Anti-Fatigue and Antistress Effect of the Hot-Water Fraction from Mycelia of Cordyceps sinensis. Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin, 26, 691-694.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1248/bpb.26.691
[29] Terjung, R., Baldwin, K., Winder, W. and Holloszy, J. (1974) Glycogen Repletion in Different Types of Muscle and in Liver after Exhausting Exercise. American Journal of Physiology Legacy Content, 226, 1387-1391.
[30] Ivy, J.L. (1991) Muscle Glycogen Synthesis before and after Exercise. Sports Medicine, 11, 6-19.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2165/00007256-199111010-00002
[31] Costill, D., Coyle, E., Dalsky, G., Evans, W., Fink, W. and Hoopes, D. (1977) Effects of Elevated Plasma FFA and Insulin on Muscle Glycogen Usage during Exercise. Journal of Applied Physiology, 43, 695-699.
[32] Lee, B., Yu, H., Jahoor, F., O’Brien, W., Beaudet, A.L. and Reeds, P. (2000) In Vivo Urea Cycle Flux Distinguishes and Correlates with Phenotypic Severity in Disorders of the Urea Cycle. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 97, 8021-8026.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2165/00007256-199111010-00002
[33] Wilber, C.G. (1959) Some Factors Which Are Correlated with Swimming Capacity in Guinea Pigs. Journal of Applied Physiology, 14, 199-203.
[34] Dohm, G.L., Tapscott, E.B., Barakat, H.A. and Kasperek, G.J. (1983) Influence of Fasting on Glycogen Depletion in Rats during Exercise. Journal of Applied Physiology, 55, 830-833.
[35] Favier, R. and Koubi, H. (1988) Metabolic and Structural Adaptations to Exercise in Chronic Intermittent Fasted Rats. American Journal of Physiology-Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology, 254, 877-884.

  
comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2020 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.