Nutritional Value of Italian Pistachios from Bronte ( Pistacia vera, L.), Their Nutrients, Bioactive Compounds and Antioxidant Activity

DOI: 10.4236/fns.2015.614132   PDF   HTML   XML   2,262 Downloads   2,886 Views   Citations

Abstract

This study gives an overview on the nutritional value, bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity (ABTS and FRAP) of Bronte’s pistachio (Pistacia vera, L., cv. Bianca) from Sicily (Italy). Bronte’s pistachios are rich in fat, protein, dietary fiber, trace elements (Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn) and minerals (Ca, P, K, Mg, Na). Lipids mainly consist of MUFA (33.8 g/100g), primarily oleic acid (32.4 g/ 100g); PUFA is mostly represented by linoleic acid (7.49 g/100g). Bronte’s pistachios are also a valuable source of bioactive compounds such as total polyphenols (501.5 mg/100g), lutein (1.26 mg/100g), β-carotene (0.18 mg/100g), γ-tocopherol (19.2 mg/100g) and phytosterols (134.4 mg/100g). Among phytosterols, the main is β-sitosterol (86% of total content), followed by Δ5-avenasterol (6.3%). Phytic acid content is 1763 mg/100g; Ins(1,2,4,5,6)P5 and Ins(1,2,3,4,5,)P5 have been detected too (31 mg/100g and 10 mg/100g, respectively). The antioxidant activity was determined both in hydrophilic and lipophilic fraction of pistachios, showing >80% of the total antioxidant activity in the hydrophilic, predominately due to phenolic compounds.

Share and Cite:

D’Evoli, L. , Lucarini, M. , Gabrielli, P. , Aguzzi, A. and Lombardi-Boccia, G. (2015) Nutritional Value of Italian Pistachios from Bronte ( Pistacia vera, L.), Their Nutrients, Bioactive Compounds and Antioxidant Activity. Food and Nutrition Sciences, 6, 1267-1276. doi: 10.4236/fns.2015.614132.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

References

[1] [1] Kelly, J.H. and Sabaté, J. (2006) Nuts and Coronary Heart Disease: An Epidemiological Perspective. British Journal of Nutrition, 96, S61-S67.
[2] Jiang, R., Manson, J.E., Stampfer, M.J., Liu, S., Willett, W.C. and Hu, F.B. (2002) Nut and Peanut Butter Consumption and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes in Women. Journal of the American Medical Association, 288, 2554-2560.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.288.20.2554
[3] Gonzalez, C.A. and Salas-Salvadò, J. (2006) The Potential of Nuts in the Prevention of Cancer. British Journal of Nutrition, 96, S87-S94.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/bjn20061868
[4] Bellomo, M.G. and Fallico, B. (2007) Anthocyanins, Chlorophylls and Xanthophylls in Pistachio Nuts (Pistacia vera) of Different Geographic Origin. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, 20, 352-359.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jfca.2006.04.002
[5] Arena, E., Campisi, S., Fallico, B. and Maccarone, E. (2007) Distribution of Fatty Acids and Phytosterols as a Criterion to Discriminate Geographic Origin of Pistachio Seeds. Food Chemistry, 104, 403-408.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2006.09.029
[6] Grippi, F., Crosta, L., Aiello, G., Tolomeo, M., Oliveri, F., Gebbia, N. and Curione A. (2008) Determination of Stilbenes in Sicilian Pistachio by High-Performance Liquid Chromatographic Diode Array (HPLC-DAD/FLD) and Evaluation of Eventually Mycotoxin Contamination. Food Chemistry, 107, 483-488.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2007.07.079
[7] Jackson, C.L. and Hu, F.B. (2014) Long-Term Associations of Nut Consumption with Body Weight and Obesity. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 100, 408S-411S.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3945/ajcn.113.071332
[8] Ukhanova, M., Wang, X., Baer, D.J., Novotny, J.A., Fredborg, M. and Mai, V. (2014) Effects of Almond and Pistachio Consumption on Gut Microbiota Composition in a Randomised Cross-Over Human Feeding Study. British Journal of Nutrition, 111, 2146-2152.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0007114514000385
[9] AOAC (2012) Official Methods of Analysis, 19th Edition, Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Arlington.
[10] Prosky, L., Asp, N.G., Schweizer, T.F., De Vries, J.W. and Furda, I. (1988) Determination of Insoluble, Soluble and Total Dietary Fiber in Foods and food Products: Interlaboratory Study. Association of Official Analytical Chemistry, 71, 1017-1023.
[11] Schlemmer, U., Jany, K.-D., Berk, A., Schulz, E. and Rechkemmer, G. (2001) Degradation of Phytate in the Gut of Pigs—Pathway of Gastro-Intestinal Inositol Phosphate Hydrolysis and Enzymes Involved. Archives of Animal Nutrition, 55, 255-280.
[12] Slover, H.T. and Lanza, E. (1979) Quantitative Analysis of Food Fatty Acids by Capillary Gas Chromatography. Journal of American Oil Chemistry Society, 56, 933-943.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02674138
[13] Singleton, V. and Rossi, J.A. (1965) Colorimetry of Total Phenolics with Phosphomolybdic-Phosphotungstic Acid Reagents. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture (AJEV), 16, 144-158.
[14] Ballistreri, G., Arena, E. and Fallico, B. (2010) Characterization of Triacylglycerols in Pistacia vera L. Oils from Different Geographic Origins. Italian Journal of Food Science, 22, 69-75.
[15] Pilar Cano, M. (1991) HPLC Separation of Chlorophyll and Carotenoid Pigments of Four Kiwi Fruit Cultivars. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry, 39, 1786-1791.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf00010a019
[16] Lanina, S.A., Toledo, P., Sampels, S., Kamal-Eldin, A. and Jastrebova, J.A. (2007) Comparison of Reversed-Phase Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry with Electrospray and Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization for Analysis of Dietary Tocopherols. Journal of Chromatography A, 1157, 159-170.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chroma.2007.04.058
[17] Soupas, L., Juntunen, L., Lampi, A.M. and Piironen, V. (2004) Effects of Sterol Structure, Temperature, and Lipid Medium on Phytosterol Oxidation. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry, 52, 6485-6491.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf049168k
[18] Piironen, V., Toivo, J. and Lampi, A.M. (2002) Plant Sterols in Cereals and Cereal Products. Cereal Chemistry, 79, 148-154.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/CCHEM.2002.79.1.148
[19] Du, M. and Ahn, D.U. (2002) Simultaneous Analysis of Tocopherols, Cholesterol, and Phytosterols Using Gas Chromatography. Journal of Food Science, 67, 1696-1700.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.2002.tb08708.x
[20] Meyers, K.J., Watkins, C.B., Pritts, M.P. and Liu, R.H. (2003) Antioxidant and Antiproliferative Activities of Strawberries. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry, 51, 6887-6892.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf034506n
[21] Re, R., Pellegrini, N., Proteggente, A., Pannala, A., Yang, M. and Rice-Evans, C. (1999) Antioxidant Activity Applying an Improved ABTS Radical Cation Decolorization Assay. Free Radical Biology & Medicine, 26, 1231-1237.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0891-5849(98)00315-3
[22] Benzie, I. and Strain, J. (1996) The Ferric Reducing Ability of Plasma (FRAP) as a Measure of “Antioxidant Power”: The FRAP Assay. Analytical Biochemistry, 239, 70-76.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/abio.1996.0292
[23] Tsantili, E., Takidelli, C., Christopoulosa, M.V., Lambrineab, E., Rouskasc, D. and Roussosa, P.A. (2010) Physical, Compositional and Sensory Differences in Nuts among Pistachio (Pistachia vera L.) Varieties. Scientia Horticulturae, 125, 562-568.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scienta.2010.04.039
[24] USDA Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service (2010) National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 23.
http://www.ars.usda.gov/ba/bhnrc/ndl
[25] Kornsteiner, M., Wagner, K.H. and Elmadfa, I. (2006) Tocopherols and Total Phenolics in 10 Different Nut Types. Food Chemistry, 98, 381-387.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2005.07.033
[26] Derewiaka, D., Szwed, E. and Wolosiak, R. (2014) Physicochemical Properties and Composition of Lipid Fraction of Selected Edible Nuts. Pakistan Journal of Botanic, 46, 337-343.
[27] Venkatachalam, M. and Sathe, S.S. (2006) Chemical Composition of Selected Edible Nut Seeds. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry, 54, 4705-4714.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf0606959
[28] Pereira, M.A., O’Reilly, E., Augustsson, K., et al. (2004) Dietary Fiber and Risk of Coronary Heart Disease. Archives of Internal Medicine, 164, 370-376.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archinte.164.4.370
[29] Kris-Etherton, P.M., Zhao, G., Binkoski, A.E., Coval, S.M. and Etherton, T.D. (2001) The Effects of Nuts on Coronary Heart Disease Risk. Nutrition Review, 59, 103-111.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1753-4887.2001.tb06996.x
[30] Schlemmer, U., Frølich, W., Prieto, R.M. and Grases, F. (2009) Phytate in Foods and Significance for Humans: Food Sources, Intake, Processing, Bioavailability, Protective Role and Analysis. Molecular Nutrition & Food Research, 53, S330-S375.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mnfr.200900099
[31] Gentile, C., Tesoriere, L., Butera, D., Fazzari, M., Monastero, M., Allegra, M. and Livrea, M.A. (2007) Antioxidant Activity of Sicilian Pistachio (Pistacia vera L., Var. Bronte) Nut Extract and Its Bioactive Components. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry, 55, 643-648.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf062533i
[32] Tsantili, E., Konstantinidis, K., Christopoulos, M.V. and Roussos, P.A. (2011) Total Phenolics and Flavonoids and Total Antioxidant Capacity in Pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) Nuts in Relation to Cultivars and Storage Conditions. Scientia Horticulturae, 129, 694-701.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scienta.2011.05.020
[33] Wu, X., Beecher, G.R., Holden, J.M., Hayatowitz, D.B., Gebhardt, S.E. and Prior, R.L. (2004) Lipophilic and Hydrophilic Antioxidant Capacities of Common Foods in the United States. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry, 52, 4026-4037.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf049696w
[34] Giuffrida, D., Saitta, M., La Torre, G.L., Bombaci, L. and Dugo, G. (2006) Carotenoid, Chlorophyll and Chlorophyll- Derived Compounds in Pistachio Kernels (Pistacia vera L.) from Sicily. Italian Journal of Food Science, 18, 309-316.
[35] Phillips, K.M., Ruggio, D.M. and Ashraf-Khorassani, M. (2005) Phytosterol Composition of Nuts and Seeds Commonly Consumed in the United States. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry, 53, 9436-9445.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf051505h
[36] Tomaino, A., Martorana, M., Arcoraci, T., Monteleone, D., Giovinazzo, C. and Saija, A. (2010) Antioxidant Activity and Phenolic Profile of Pistachio (Pistacia vera L., Variety Bronte) Seeds and Skins. Biochimie, 92, 1115-1122.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biochi.2010.03.027
[37] Pellegrini, N., Serafini, M., Salvatore, S., Del Rio, D., Bianchi, M. and Brighenti, F. (2006) Total Antioxidant Capacity of Spices, Dried Fruits, Nuts, Pulses, Cereals and Sweets Consumed in Italy Assessed by Three Different in Vitro Assays. Molecular Nutrition & Food Research, 50, 1030-1038.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mnfr.200600067
[38] Halvorsen, B.L., Carlsen, M.H., Phillips, K.M., Bohn, S.K., Holte, K., Jacobs, D.R. and Blomhoff, R. (2006) Content of Redox-Active Compounds (i.e., Antioxidants) in Foods Consumed in the United States. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 84, 95-135.
[39] Leclercq, C., Arcella, D., Piccinelli, R., Sette, S., Le Donne, C. and Turrini, A., On Behalf of the INRAN-SCAI 2005-2006 Study Group (2009) The Italian National Food Consumption Survey INRAN-SCAI 2005-2006: Main Results in Terms of Food Consumption. Public Health Nutrition, 12, 2504-2532.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1368980009005035
[40] SINU, Società di Nutrizione Umana (2014) LARN—Livelli di Assunzione di Riferimento di Nutrienti ed Energia per la popolazione Italiana. IV Revisione. Coordinamento editoriale SINU-INRAN. SICS, Milano.

  
comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2020 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.