Iron Fortification in Parboiled Rice—A Rapid and Effective Tool for Delivering Iron Nutrition to Rice Consumers
Chanakan Prom-u-thai, Longbin Huang, Shu Fukai, Benjavan Rerkasem
DOI: 10.4236/fns.2011.24046   PDF    HTML   XML   7,712 Downloads   15,951 Views   Citations


Parboiled rice production accounts for nearly half of the world’s rice production. Its markets and consumer base are firmly established in South Asia and Africa where Fe-deficient populations are mostly concentrated. Our research group has pioneered the technology of Fe-fortification in parboiled rice and demonstrated its feasibility in significantly increasing Fe concentration in the endosperm (white rice) and its bioavailability in rice based diet. Fortification with Fe-EDTA during parboiling resulted in 10 to 50 folds increase in grain Fe concentration, depending on the grain properties among different rice varieties. However, the broken rice of Fe-fortified parboiled rice contained 5 times the Fe concentration of the full grain, which is often bought and consumed by people in low income category. The bioavailability of the fortified Fe is closely correlated with increasing Fe concentration in white rice (r = 0.90, p < 0.01). The retention rates of the fortified Fe in the white rice range from > 50% to almost 100%, despite repeated rinsing before cooking depending on rice varieties. Perls’ Prussian blue staining and prolonged polishing showed that the in vitro Fe penetrated into the interior of the endosperm. Fortification at the rate up to 250 mg Fe kg–1 paddy rice has no deleterious effects on appearance, color and sensory quality and overall acceptance by parboiled rice consumers. It increased Fe concentration up to 27 mg Fe kg–1 of in white rice, compared with 5 mg Fe kg–1 in unfortified parboiled and raw white rice. As a result, we can conclude that parboiled rice is a ready and effective tool for improving Fe nutrition of rice consumers in these regions.

Share and Cite:

C. Prom-u-thai, L. Huang, S. Fukai and B. Rerkasem, "Iron Fortification in Parboiled Rice—A Rapid and Effective Tool for Delivering Iron Nutrition to Rice Consumers," Food and Nutrition Sciences, Vol. 2 No. 4, 2011, pp. 323-328. doi: 10.4236/fns.2011.24046.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] D. Moretti, T. C. Lee, M. B. Zimmermann, J. Nuessli and R. F. Hurrell, “Development and Evaluation of Iron-Forti-fied Extruded Rice Grains,” Journal of Food Science, Vol. 70, No. 5, 2005, pp. S330-S336. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2621.2005.tb09987.x
[2] D. Moretti, M. B. Zimmermann, S. Muthayya, P. Thank- achan, T. C. Lee, A. V. Kurpad and R. F. Hurrell, “Extruded Rice Fortified with Micronized Ground Ferric Pyrophosphate Reduces Iron Deficiency in Indian Schoolchildren: A Double-Blind Randomized Controlled Trial,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 84, No. 4, 2006, pp. 822-829.
[3] B. O. Juliano, “Rice in Human Nutrition,” Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, 1993.
[4] WHO, “The World Health Report 2002, Reducing Risks, Promoting Healthy Life,” World Health Organization, Geneva, 2002, pp. 1-168.
[5] J. D. Cook, M. B. Reddy, J. Burri, M. A. Juillerat and R. F. Hurrell, “The Influence of Different Cereal Grains on Iron Absorption from Infant Cereal Foods,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 65, No. 4, 1997, pp. 964-969.
[6] A. Peil, F. Barrett, C. Rha and R. Langer, “Retention of Micronutrients by Polymer Coatings Used to Fortify Rice,” Journal of Food Science, Vol. 47, 1981, pp. 260-262. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2621.1982.tb11073.x
[7] V. Tulyathan, T. Mekjarutkul and S. Jongkaewwattana, “Iron Retention on Flour Gel-Coated Rice Grains and Its Storage Stability,” Foodservice Research International, Vol. 15, 2005, pp. 147-156. doi:10.1111/j.1745-4506.2005.00005.x
[8] P. Pillaiyar, “Household Parboiling of Parboiled Rice,” Kishan World, Vol. 8, 1981, pp. 20-21.
[9] K. R. Bhattacharya, “Parboiling of Rice,” American Association of Cereal Chemists, Inc., St. Paul, 2004.
[10] N. H. Choudhury, “Parboiling and Consumer Demand of Parboiled Rice in South Asia,” International Rice Research Institute, Manila, 1991.
[11] B. Rerkasem, “Having Your Rice and Eating It Too: A View of Thailand’s Green Revolution,” Science Asia, Vol. 33, Supplement 1, 2007, pp. 75-80. doi:10.2306/scienceasia1513-1874.2007.33(s1).075
[12] C. Prom-u-thai, S. Fukai, D. I. Godwin, B. Rerkasem and L. Huang, “Iron-Fortified Parboiled Rice—A Novel Solution to High Iron Density in Rice-Based Diets,” Food Chemistry, Vol. 110, 2008, pp. 390-398. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2008.02.043
[13] C. Prom-u-thai, R. P. Glahn, Z. Cheng, S. Fukai, B. Rerkasem and L. Huang, “The Bioavailability of Iron Fortified in Whole Grain Parboiled Rice,” Food Chemistry, Vol. 112, No. 4, 2009, pp. 982-986. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2008.07.020
[14] C. Prom-u-thai, B. Rerkasem, S. Fukai and L. Huang, “Iron-Fortification and Parboiled Rice Quality: Appearance, Cooking Quality and Sensory Attributes,” Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, Vol. 89, No. 15, 2009, pp. 2565-2571. doi:10.1002/jsfa.3753
[15] M. Chitpan, V. Chavasit and R. Kongkachuichai, “Development of Fortified Dried Broken Rice as a Complementary Food,” Food and Nutrition Bulletin, Vol. 26, No. 4, 2005, pp. 376-384.
[16] Y. Li, L. L. Diosady and S. Jankowski, “Stability of Vitamin B1 in Ultra Rice in the Presence of Encapsulated Ferrous Fumarate,” International Journal of Food Scie- nces and Nutrition, Vol. 59, No. 1, 2008, pp. 24-33. doi:10.1080/09637480701554103

Copyright © 2023 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.