Share This Article:

Microbial Fermentation Patterns, Diarrhea Incidence, and Performance in Weaned Piglets Fed a Low Protein Diet Supplemented with Probiotics

Abstract Full-Text HTML Download Download as PDF (Size:3222KB) PP. 1776-1786
DOI: 10.4236/fns.2014.518191    4,266 Downloads   5,129 Views   Citations

ABSTRACT

To evaluate the effects of dietary protein levels and probiotic supplementation on microbial intestinal fermentation, diarrhea incidence, and performance in weaned piglets, 162 piglets were randomly assigned to three treatments: high-protein diet (20%), with antibiotics (HPa); high-protein diet (20%), without antibiotics (HP); and low-protein diet, without antibiotics but with probiotics (LPpb). Piglets and feed were weighed weekly to calculate the average daily gain (ADG), average daily feed intake (ADFI), and gain: feed ratio (G:F). Four piglets per treatment were killed on day 21 postweaning to collect ileal and colon digesta for measurement of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), branched-chain fatty acids (BCFAs), lactic acid (LA), and ammonia (AM). In the digesta collected from the ileum and colon, piglets fed the HPa diet had the lowest concentration of volatile fatty acids. Additionally, the HP diet produced the highest concentration of BCFAs, while the LPpb diet produced moreacetic, propionic, and butyric acids than the HPa and HP diets. Piglets fed the HP diet had higher incidence and severity of diarrhea than piglets fed LPpb and HPa diets, and similar values were observed between these two groups. The second week postweaning was the most critical for diarrhea measurements; during the second week, animals had higher incidence and severity of diarrhea. Piglets fed the HPa and LPpb diets had similar ADGs, while those fed the HP diet had the poorest ADG. Similar results were observed with ADFI and G:F. A low-protein diet supplemented with probiotics changed the fermentation profile, reducing toxic metabolites, promoting gut health, decreasing the incidence and severity of postweaning diarrhea, and improving the performance of piglets.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

García, K. , de Souza, T. , Landín, G. , Barreyro, A. , Santos, M. and Soto, J. (2014) Microbial Fermentation Patterns, Diarrhea Incidence, and Performance in Weaned Piglets Fed a Low Protein Diet Supplemented with Probiotics. Food and Nutrition Sciences, 5, 1776-1786. doi: 10.4236/fns.2014.518191.

References

[1] Williams, B.A., Bosch, M.W., Awati, A., Konstantinov, S.R., Smidt, H., Akkermans, A.D.L., Verstegen, M.W.A. and Tamminga, S. (2005) In Vitro Assessment of Gastrointestinal Tract (GIT) Fermentation in Pigs: Fermentable Substrates and Microbial Activity. Animal Research, 54, 191-201.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/animres:2005011
[2] Hermes, R.G., Molist, F., Ywazaki, M., Nofrarías, M., Gomez de Segura, A., Gasa, J. and Pérez, J.F. (2009) Effect of Dietary Level of Protein and Fiber on the Productive Performance and Health Status of Piglets. Journal of Animal Science, 87, 3569-3577.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2527/jas.2008-1241
[3] Opapeju, F.O., Krause, D.O., Payne, R.L., Rademacher, M. and Nyachoti, C.M. (2009) Effect of Dietary Protein Level on Growth Performance, Indicators of Enteric Health, and Gastrointestinal Microbial Ecology of Weaned Pigs Induced with Postweaning colibacilosis. Journal of Animal Science, 87, 2635-2643.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2527/jas.2008-1310
[4] Nyachoti, C.M., Omogbenigun, F.O., Rademacher, M. and Blank, G. (2006) Performance Responses and Indicators of Gastrointestinal Health in Early Weaned Piglets Fed Low-Protein Amino Acid Supplemented Diets. Journal of Animal Science, 84, 125-134.
[5] Htoo, J.K., Araiza, B.A., Sauer, W.C., Rademacher, M., Zhang, Y., Cervantes, M. and Zijlstra, R.T. (2007) Effect of Dietary Protein Content on Ileal Amino Acid Digestibility, Growth Performance, and Formation of Microbial Metabolites in Ileal an Cecaldigesta of Early-Weaned Pigs. Journal of Animal Science, 85, 3303-3312.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2527/jas.2007-0105
[6] Wellock, I.J., Fortomaris, P.D., Houdijk, J.G.M. and Kyriazakis, I. (2006) The Effect of Dietary Protein Supply on the Performance and Risk of Post-Weaning Enteric Disorders in Newly Weaned Pigs. Animal Science, 82, 327-335.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1079/ASC200643
[7] Yue, L.Y. and Qiao, S.Y. (2008) Effects of Low-Protein Diets Supplemented with Crystalline Amino Acids on Performance and Intestinal Development in Pliglts over the First 2 Weeks after Weaning. Livestock Science, 115, 144-152.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.livsci.2007.06.018
[8] Heo, J.M., Kim, J.C., Hansen, C.F., Mullan, C.F., Hampson, B.P. and Pluske J.R. (2008) Effects of Feeding Low Protein Diets to Piglets on Plasma Urea Nitrogen, Faecal Ammonia Nitrogen, the Incidence of Diarrhea and Performance after Weaning. Archives of Animal Nutrition, 62, 343-358.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17450390802327811
[9] Wellock, I.J., Houdijk, J.G.M. and Kyriazakis, I. (2007) Effect of Dietary Non-Starch Polysaccharide Solubility and Inclusion Level on Gut Health and the Risk of Postweaning Enteric Disorders in Newly Weaned Piglets. Livestock Science, 108, 186-189.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.liv.sci.2007.01.050
[10] Bhandari, S.K., Opapeju, F.O., Krause, D.O. and Nyachoti, C.M. (2010) Dietary Protein Level and Probiotic Supplementation Effects on Piglet Response to Escherichia coli K88 Challenge: Performance and Gut Microbial Population. Livestock Science, 133, 185-188.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.livsci.2010.06060
[11] Skjolaas, K.A., Burkey, T.E., Dritz, S.S. and Minton, J.E. (2007) Effects of Salmonella enteric Serovar Typhimurium, or Serovar Choleraesuis, Lactobacillus reuteri and Bacillus licheniformis on Chemokine and Cytokine Expression in the Swine Jejunal Epithelial Cell Line, IPEC-J2. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology, 115, 299-308.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetimm.2006.10.012
[12] Norma Oficial Mexicana, NOM-062-ZOO-1999 (2001) Especificaciones técnicas para la producción, cuidado y uso de los animales de laboratorio. Diario Oficial de la Federación, México, D.F.
[13] CIOMS (1985) International Guiding Principles for Biomedical Research Involving Animals. The Development of Science-Based Guidelines for Laboratory Animal Care. NCBI Bookshelf.
http://cioms.ch/publications/guidelines/1985_texts_of_guidelines.htm
[14] National Research Council (NRC) (2012) Nutrients Requirements of Swine. 11th Edition, National Academy Press, Washington DC.
[15] Roberts, S.A., Xin, H., Kerr, B.J., Russell, J.R. and Bregendahl, K. (2007) Effects of Dietary Fiber and Reduced Crude Protein on Ammonia Emission from Laying-Hen Manure. Poultry Science, 86, 1625-1632.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ps/86.8.1625
[16] David, F., Sandra, P. and Wylie, P.L. (2003) Improving the Analysis of Fatty Acid Methyl Esters Using Retention Times Locked Methods and Retention Time Data Bases. Agilent Technologies, Santa Clara.
[17] Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC) (2002) Official Methods of Analysis. 17th Edition, Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Arlington.
[18] Van Soest, P.J., Roberts, J. and Lewis, B.A. (1991) Methods for Dietary Fiber Neutral Detergent Fiber and Nonstarch Polysaccharides in Relation to Animal Nutrition. Journal of Dairy Science, 74, 3583-3594.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(91)78551-2
[19] Steel, R.G.D. and Torrie, J.H. (1991) Principles and Procedures of Statistics: A Biometrical Approach. 3rd Edition, McGraw-Hill, New York.
[20] SAS Institute (2008) SAS/ETS? 9.2 User’s Guide. SAS Institute, Inc., Cary.
[21] Windey, K., De Preter, V. and Verbeke, K. (2012) Relevance of Protein Fermentation to Gut Health. Molecular Nutrition & Food Research, 56, 184-196.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mnfr.201100542
[22] Williams, B.A., Verstegen, M.W.A. and Tamminga, S. (2001) Fermentation in the Large Intestine of Single-Stomached Animals and Its Relationship to Animal Health. Nutrition Research Reviews, 14, 207-227.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1079/NRR200127
[23] Donohoe, D.R., Garge, N., Zhang, X., Sun, W., O’Connell, T.M., Bunger, M.K. and Bultman, S.J. (2011) The Microbiome and Butyrate Regulate Energy Metabolism and Autophagy in the Mammalian Colon. Cell Metabolism, 13, 517- 526.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cmet.2011.02.018
[24] Taciak, M., Pastuszewska, B., Tus?nio, A. and S?wie?ch, E. (2010) Effects of Two Protein and Fibre Sources on SCFA Concentration in Pig Large Intestine. Livestock Science, 133, 138-140.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.livsci.2010.06.046
[25] Blachier, F., Mariotti, F., Huneau, J.F. and Tome, D. (2007) Effects of Amino Acid-Derived Luminal Metabolites on the Colonic Epithelium and Physiopathological Consequences. Amino Acids, 33, 547-562.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00726-006-0477-9
[26] Caliendo, G., Cirino, G., Santagada, V. and Wallace, J.L. (2010) Synthesis and Biological Effects of Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S): Development of H2S-Releasing Drugs as Pharmaceuticals. Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, 53, 6275-6286.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jm901638j
[27] Burrin, D.G., Petersen, Y., Stoll, B. and Sanguild, P. (2001) Glucagon-Like Peptide 2: A Nutrient-Responsive Gut Growth Factor. Journal of Nutrition, 131, 709-712.
[28] Bikker, P., Dirkzwager, A., Fledderus, J., Trevisi, P., le Hu?rou-Luron, I., Lallès, J.P. and Awati, A. (2007) Dietary Protein and Fermentable Carbohydrates Contents Influence Growth Performance and Intestinal Characteristics in Newly Weaned Pigs. Livestock Science, 108, 194-197.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.livsci.2007.01.057
[29] Lallès, J.P., Bosi, P., Smidt, H. and Stokes, C.R. (2007) Weaning—A Challenge to Gut Physiologists. Livestock Science, 108, 82-93.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.livsci.2007.01.091
[30] Le Bon, M., Davies, H.E., Glynn, C., Thompson, C., Madden, M., Wiseman, J., Dodd, C.E.R., Hurdidge, L., Payne, G., Le Treut, Y., Craigon, J., T?temeyer, S. and Mellits, K.H. (2010) Influence of Probiotics on Gut Health in the Weaned Pig. Livestock Science, 133, 179-181.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.livsci.2010.06.058
[31] Anthony, T., Rajesh, T., Kayalvizhi, N. and Gunasekaran, P. (2009) Influence of Medium Components and Fermentation Conditions on the Production of Bacteriocin(s) by Bacillus licheniformis AnBa9. Bioresource Technology, 100, 872-877.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2008.07.027
[32] Walker, W.A. (2008) Mechanisms of Action of Probiotics. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 46, 87-91.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/523335
[33] Alexopoulos, C., Georgoulakis, E., Tzivara, A., Kyriakis, C.S., Govaris, A. and Kyriakis, S.C. (2004) Field Evaluation of the Effect of a Probiotic-Containing Bacillus licheniformis and Bacillus subtilis Spores on the Health Status, Performance and Carcass Quality of Grower and Finisher Pigs. Journal of Veterinary Medicine Series A, 51, 306-312.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0442.2004.00637.x
[34] Le Bellego, L. and Noblet, J. (2002) Performance and Utilization of Dietary Energy and Amino Acids in Piglets Fed Low Protein Diet. Livestock Production Science, 76, 45-48.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0301-6226(02)00008-8
[35] Reynolds, A.M. and O’Doherty, J.V. (2006) The Effect of Amino Acid Restriction during the Grower Phase on Compensatory Growth, Carcass Composition and Nitrogen Utilization in Grower—Finisher Pigs. Livestock Production Science, 104, 112-120.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.livsci.2006.03.012
[36] Reynoso, E., Cervantes, M., Figueroa, J.L. and Cuca, J.M. (2004) Productive Response of Pigs to Low-Protein Diets Added Synthetic Amino Acids and Yeast Culture. Cuban Journal of Agricultural Science, 38, 269-275.
[37] Hansen, J.A., Knabe, D.A. and Burgoon, K.G. (1993) Amino Acids Supplementation of Low-Protein Sorghum-Soybean Meal Diet for 5 to 20 Kilograms Swine, Journal of Animal Science, 71, 452-458.

  
comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2019 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.