Safe Foods for Celiac People

DOI: 10.4236/fns.2014.59089   PDF   HTML   XML   5,484 Downloads   7,675 Views   Citations

Abstract

Celiac Disease is a chronic entheropathy produced by gluten intolerance, more precisely to certain proteins called prolamines, which causes atrophy of intestinal villi, malabsorption and clinical symptoms that can appear in both childhood and adulthood. This pathogeny, results from the interaction of genetic, immunologic and environmental factors, which produce the lesions on the mucosa of the proximal small intestine. It is important to estimate the maximum gluten content that could be present in supposedly “gluten-free” foods, a limit of 20 mg/Kg is admitted. Rice flour, sorghum flour, starches, hydrocolloids, soy flour and dairy products are analyzed for carrying out the manufacture of gluten-free products, such as bread, noodles and others.

Share and Cite:

Osella, C. , Torre, M. and Sánchez, H. (2014) Safe Foods for Celiac People. Food and Nutrition Sciences, 5, 787-800. doi: 10.4236/fns.2014.59089.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

References

[1] Heredia, C., Castro, F. andPalma, J. (2007) Adult Celiac Disease. Revista Médica de Chile, 135, 1186-1194.
[2] Minarro, B., Albanell, E., Aguilar, N., Guamis, B. and Capellas, M. (2012) Effect of Legume Flours on Baking Characteristics of Gluten-Free Bread. Journal of Cereal Science, 56, 476-481.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcs.2012.04.012
[3] Kawamura-Konishi, Y., Shoda, K., Koga, H. and Honda, Y. (2013) Improvement in Gluten-Free Rice Bread Quality by Protease Treatment. Journal of Cereal Science, 58, 45-50.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcs.2013.02.010
[4] Murray, J.A. (1999) The Widening Spectrum of Celiac Disease. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 69, 354-365.
[5] Tsatsaragkou, K., Yiannopoulos, S., Kontogiorgi, A., Poulli, E., Krokida, M. and Mandala, I. (2012) Mathematical Approach of Structural and Textural Properties of Gluten Free Bread Enriched with Carob Flour. Journal of Cereal Science, 56, 603-609. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcs.2012.07.007
[6] Huang, X., Kanerva, P., Salovaara, H., Loponen, J. and Sontag-Strohm, T. (2013) Oxidative Modification of a Proline-Rich Gliadin Peptide. Food Chemistry, 141, 2011-2016.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2013.05.066
[7] Cosnes, J., Cellier, C., Viola, S., Colombel, J.F., Michaud Sarles, J.L., Hugot, J.P., Ginies, J.L., Dabadie, A., Mouterde, O., Allez, M. andNion-Larmurier, I. (2008) Incidence of Autoinmune Diseases in Celiac Disease: Protective Effect of the Gluten-Free Diet. Clinical Gastroenterology, 7, 753-758. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cgh.2007.12.022
[8] Albanell, E., Minarro, B. and Carrasco, N. (2012) Detection of Low-Level Gluten Content in Flour and Batter by near Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy (NIRS). Journal of Cereal Science, 56, 490-495.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcs.2012.06.011
[9] Canales, P., Araya, M., Alliende, F., Hunter, B., Alarcón, T. and Chávez, E. (2008) Diagnosis and Clinical Presentations of Celiac Disease. A Multicenter Study. Revista Médica de Chile, 136, 296-303.
[10] Londono, D.M., van’t Westende, W.P.C., Goryunova, S., Salentijn, E.M.J., van den Broeck, H.C., van der Meer, I.M., Visser, R.G.F., Gilissen, L.J.W. and Smulders, M.J.M. (2013) Avenin Diversity Analysis of the Genus Avena (Oat). Relevance for People with Celiac Disease. Journal of Cereal Science, 58, 170-177.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcs.2013.03.017
[11] Hernández, G. and Argüelles, H. (2006) Manejo nutricional de la enfermedad celíaca. Revista Cubana de Pediatría, 78, 1-7.
[12] Bai, J., Zeballos, E. and Fried, M. (2005) Practice Guidelines: Celiac Disease. World Gastroenterology News, 10, 1-8.
[13] Cammarota, G., Cuoco, L., Cianci, R., Pandolfi, F. and Gasbarrini, G. (2000) Onset of Coeliac Disease during Treatment with Interferon for Chronic Hepatitis C. The Lancet, 356, 1494-1495.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(00)02880-4
[14] Di Sabatino, A. and Corazza, G. (2009) Coeliac Disease. The Lancet, 373, 1480-1493.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(09)60254-3
[15] De Vita, P., Ficco, D.B.M., Luciani, A., Vincentini, O., Pettoello-Mantovani, M., Silano, M., Maiuri, L. and Cattivelli, L. (2012) A ω-Secalin Contained Decamer Shows a Celiac Disease Prevention Activity. Journal of Cereal Science, 55, 234-242. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcs.2011.12.006
[16] Kelly, C.P., Feighery, C., Gallagher, R.B. and Weir, D.G. (1999) The Diagnosis and Treatment of Gluten-Sensitive Enteropathy. Advances in Internal Medicine, 35, 341-364.
[17] Guevara, G. (2002) Enfermedad Celíaca. Revista Chilena de Pedriatría, 73, 394-397.
http://dx.doi.org/10.4067/S0370-41062002000400012
[18] Araya, M. (2006) Improving the Management of Celiac Disease. An Urgent Challenge. Revista Médica de Chile, 134, 361-364.
[19] Mitre, M.B. (2004) Enfermedad Celíaca. http://www.intramed. net/UserFiles/Files/celiaco.pdf
[20] Green, P. and Jabri, B. (2003) Coeliac Disease. The Lancet, 362, 383-391.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(03)14027-5
[21] Fasano, A. and Catassi, C. (2001) Current Approaches to Diagnosis and Treatment of Celiac Disease: An Evolving Spectrum. Gastroenterology, 120, 636-651. http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/gast.2001.22123
[22] Kennedy, N.P. and Feighery, C. (2000) Clinical Features of Coeliac Disease Today. Biomedicine and Pharmacotherapy, 54, 373-380. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0753-3322(01)80004-4
[23] Sanchez, H.D., Osella, C.A. and de la Torre, M.A. (1996) Desarrollo de una fórmula para pan sin gluten. Información Tecnológica, 7, 35-42.
[24] Sánchez, H.D., González, R.J., Osella, C.A., Torres, R.L. and de la Torre, M.A. (2008) Elaboración de pan sin gluten con harinas de arroz extrudidas. Ciencia y Tecnología Alimentaria, 6, 109-116.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/11358120809487635
[25] Sanchez, H.D., Osella, C.A. and de la Torre, M.A. (2002) Optimization of Gluten-Free Bread Prepared from Cornstarch, Rice Flour, and Cassava Starch. Journal of Food Science, 67, 416-419.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.2002.tb11420.x
[26] Sánchez, H.D., Osella, C.A. and de la Torre, M.A. (2004) Use of Response Surface Methodology to Optimize Gluten— Free Bread Fortified with Soy Flour and Dry Milk. Food Science and Technology International, 10, 5-9.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1082013204042067
[27] Croft, N.M. (2008) Gluten-Free Diets in Celiac Disease: Does Life Mean Life. Gastroenterology, 134, 883-885.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.gastro.2008.01.048
[28] Al-Toma, A., Verbeek, W.H. and Mulder, C.J. (2007) Update on the Management of Refractory Coeliac Disease. Journal of Gastrointestin and Liver Disesases, 16, 57-63.
[29] Krauss, N. and Schuppan, D. (2006) RETRACTED: Monitoring Nonresponsive Patients Who Have Celiac Disease. Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Clinics of North America, 16, 317-327. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.giec.2006.03.005
[30] Raymond, N., Heap, J. and Case, S. (2006) The Gluten-Free Diet: An Update for Health Professionals. Practical Gastroenterology, 30, 67-92.
[31] Green, P., Stavropoulos, S.N., Panagi, S., Glodstein, S.L., Mc Mahon, D., Absan, H. and Neugut, A. (2001) Characteristic of Adult Celiac Disease in the USA: Results of a National Survey. American Journal of Gastroenterology, 96, 126131. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1572-0241.2001.03462.x
[32] Case, S. (2005) The Gluten-Free Diet: How to Provide Effective Education and Resources. Gastroenterology, 128, S128S134. http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.gastro.2005.02.020
[33] Niewinski, M.M. (2008) Advances in Celiac Disease and Gluten-Free Diet. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 108, 661-672. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jada.2008.01.011
[34] Gibert, A., Espadaler, A. and Montserrat, A. (2006) Consumption of Gluten-Free Products: Should the Threshold Value for Trace Amounts of Gluten be at 20, 100 or 200 ppm.? European Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, 18, 1187-1195.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.meg.0000236884.21343.e4
[35] Alvarez, P.A., Mongeon, V.J. and Boye, J.I. (2013) Characterization of a Gluten Reference Material: Wheat-Contaminated Oats. Journal of Cereal Science, 57, 418-423.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcs.2013.01.006
[36] Akobeng, A.K. and Thomas, A.G. (2008) Systematic Review: Tolerable Amount of Gluten for People with Coeliac Disease. Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 27, 1044-1152.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2036.2008.03669.x
[37] Lester, D.R. (2008) Gluten Measurement and Its Relationship to Food Toxicity for Celiac Disease Patients. Plant Methods, 4, 26-30. http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1746-4811-4-26
[38] Denery-Papini, S., Nicolas, Y. and Popineau, Y. (1999) Efficiency and Limitations of Immunochemical Assays for Testing of Gluten-Free Foods. Journal of Cereal Science, 30, 121-131.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/jcrs.1999.0268
[39] van Heel, D.A. and West, J. (2006) Recent Advances in Coeliac Disease. Gut, 55, 1037-1046.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/gut.2005.075119
[40] Wang, J.S., Zhao, M.M., Zhao, Q.Z., Bao, Y. and Jiang, Y.M. (2007) Characterization of Hydrolizates Derives from Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Wheat Gluten. Journal of Food Science, 72, 103-107.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1750-3841.2006.00247.x
[41] Del Castillo, V., Lescano, G. and Armada, M. (2009) Formulación de alimentos para celíacos con base en mezclas de harinas de quínoa, cereales y almidones. Archivos Latinoamericanos de Nutrición, 59, 332-336.
[42] Padalino, L., Mastromatteo, M., Lecce, L., Cozzolino, F. and Del Nobile, M.A. (2013) Manufacture and Characterization of Gluten-Free Spaghetti Enriched with Vegetable Flour. Journal of Cereal Science, 57, 333-342.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcs.2012.12.010
[43] Kohlwey, D.E., Kendall, J.H. and Mohindra, R.B. (1995) Using the Physical Properties of Rice as a Guide to Formulation. Cereal Foods World, 40, 728-732.
[44] Gallagher, E., Gormley, T.R. and Arendt, E.K. (2004) Review Recent Advances in the Formulation of Gluten-Free CerealBased Products. Trends in Food Science and Technology, 15, 143-152. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tifs.2003.09.012
[45] Anton, A. and Artfield, S. (2008) Hydrocolloids in Gluten-Free Breads: A Review. International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition, 59, 11-23. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09637480701625630
[46] Lazaridou, A., Duta, D., Papageorgiou, M., Belc, N. and Biliaderis, C.G. (2007) Effects of Hydrocolloids on Dough Rheology and Bread Quality Parameters in Gluten-Free Formulations. Journal of Food Engineering, 79, 1033-1047.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2006.03.032
[47] Demirkesen, L., Mert, B., Sumnu, G. and Sahin, S. (2010) Rheological Properties of Gluten-Free Bread Formulations. Journal of Food Engineering, 96, 295-303.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2009.08.004
[48] Limroongreungrat, K. and Huang, Y.W. (2007) Pasta Products Made from Sweetpotato Fortified with Soy Protein. LWT-Food Science and Technology, 40, 200-206.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2005.09.012
[49] Sienkiewicz, T. and Riedel, C.L. (1990) Utilization of Whey. Whey and Whey Utilization, Ed. Verlag Th. Mann, Gelsenkirchen, 215.
[50] FAO (2004) El Arroz y la Nutrición Humana. http://www.fao.org/rice2004/es/f-sheet/hoja3.pdf
[51] Phimolsiripol, Y., Mukprasirt, A. and Schoenlechner, R. (2012) Quality Improvement of Rice-Based Gluten-Free Bread Using Different Dietary Fibre Fractions of Rice Bran. Journal of Cereal Science, 56, 389-395.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcs.2012.06.001
[52] Hamada, S., Suzuki, K., Aoki, N. and Suzuki, Y. (2013) Improvements in the Qualities of Gluten-Free Bread after Using a Protease Obtained from Aspergillus oryzae. Journal of Cereal Science, 57, 91-97.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcs.2012.10.008
[53] Torres, R.L., González, R.J., Sánchez, H.D., Osella, C.A. and de la Torre, M.A. (1999) Comportamiento de variedades de arroz en la elaboración de pan sin gluten. Archivos Latinoamericanos de Nutrición, 49, 162-165.
[54] Athapol, N., Ngamchuen, K. and Muanmai, A. (1997) Effect of Aging on the Quality of Glutinous Rice Crackers. Cereal Chemistry, 74, 12-15. http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/CCHEM.1997.74.1.12
[55] Sivaramakrishnan, H.P., Senge, B. and Chattopadhyay, P.K. (2004) Rheological Properties of Rice Dough for Making Rice Bread. Journal of Food Engineering, 62, 37-45.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0260-8774(03)00169-9
[56] Sheng, D.Y. (1995) Rice-Based Ingredients in Cereals and Snacks. Cereal Foods World, 40, 538-540.
[57] González, R.J., Torres, R.L. and de Greef, D.M. (2002) Extrusión-Cocción de cereales. Boletín da Sociedade Brasileira de Ciencia e Tecnología de Alimentos, Campinas, 36, 83-136.
[58] Gonzalez, R.J., Torres, R.L. and De Greef, D.M. (1998) Comportamiento a la cocción de variedades de arroz y maíz utilizando el amilógrafo y dos disenos de extrusores. Información Tecnológica, 9, 35-43.
[59] Gonzalez, R.J., Torres, R.L. and Anón, M.C. (2000) Comparison of Rice and Corn Cooking Characteristics before and after Extrusion. Polish Journal of Food and Nutrition Sciences, 50, 29-34.
[60] González, R.J., Torres, R.L. and De Greef, D.M. (2006) El arroz como alimento. El grano y la harina. Parámetros de caracterización y de calidad. El arroz. Su cultivo y sustentabilidad en Entre Ríos, Editorial de la UNER y UNL, 1, Cap. 1.
[61] Pedrosa Silva, M.T. and El-Dash, A. (2006) Farinha extrusada de arroz como substituto de gluten na producao de pao de arroz. Archivos Latinoamericanos de Nutrición, 56, 288-299.
[62] Schober, T.J., Messerschmidt, M., Bean, S.R., Park, S.H. and Arendt, E.K. (2005) Gluten-Free Bread from Sorghum: Quality Differences among Hybrids. Cereal Chemistry, 82, 394-404. http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/CC-82-0394
[63] Awika, J.M. and Rooney, L.W. (2004) Sorghum Phytochemicals and Their Potential Impacton Human Health. Phytochemistry, 65, 1199-1221. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.phytochem.2004.04.001
[64] Ciacci, C., Maiuri, L., Caporaso, N., Bucci, C., Del Giudice, L., Massardo, D.R., Pontieri, P., Di Fonzo, N., Bean, S.R., Ioerger, B. and Londei, M. (2007) Celiac Disease: In Vitro and in Vivo Safety and Palatability of Wheat-Free Sorghum Food Products. Clinical Nutrition, 26, 799-805. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clnu.2007.05.006
[65] Liu, L., Herald, T.J., Wang, D., Wilson, J.D., Bean, S.R. and Aramoun, F.M. (2012) Characterization of Sorghum Grain and Evaluation of Sorghum Flour in a Chinese Egg Noodle System. Journal of Cereal Science, 55, 31-36.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcs.2011.09.007
[66] Taylor, J.R.N., Schober, T.J. and Bean, S.R. (2006) Novel Food and Non-Food Uses for Sorghum and Millets. Journal of Cereal Science, 44, 252-271. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcs.2006.06.009
[67] Onyango, C., Mutungi, C., Unbehend, G. and Lindhauer, M.G. (2011) Modification of Gluten-Free Sorghum Batter and Bread Using Maize, Potato, Cassava or Rice Starch. LWT-Food Science and Technology, 44, 681-686.
[68] Keregero, M.M. and Mtebe, K. (1994) Acceptability of Wheat-Sorghum Composite Flour Products: An Assessment. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition, 46, 305-312. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01088429
[69] Schober, T.J., Bean, S.R. and Boyle, D.L.J. (2007) Gluten-Free Sorghum Bread Improved by Sourdough Fermentation: Biochemical, Rheological, and Microstructural Background. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 55, 51375146. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf0704155
[70] Aristizábal, J. and Sánchez, T. (2007) Características del Almidón de Yuca.
http://www.fao.org/docrep/010/a1028s/a1028s00.HTM
[71] Singh, N., Kaur, L., Sodhi, N.S. and Sekhon, K. (2005) Physicochemical, Cooking and Textural Properties of Miled Rice from Different Indian Rice Cultivars. Food Chemistry, 89, 253-259.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2004.02.032
[72] Pérez, L. (2007) Elaboración de pasta alimenticia por sustitución de sémola de trigo por harina de yuca 10, 15, 20% y zumo de remolacha. Tesis de Licenciatura, Escuela de Biología, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Central de Venezuela.
[73] Sabbatini, S. (2011) Formulación de una premezcla “sin gluten” para la elaboración de fideos tipo cinta, fortificados con harina de soja y concentrado proteico de suero caseario. Tesis Maestría en Ciencia y Tecnología de Alimentos, Facultad de Ingeniería Química, Universidad Nacional del Litoral, Santa Fe.
[74] Barrios, S.E., Contreras, J.M. and López Carrasquero, F. (2009) Estudio preliminar de modificación química de almidón de yuca mediante reacciones de carboximetilación asistida por microondas. Suplemento de la Revista Latinoamericana de Metalurgia y Materiales, S2, 159-160.
[75] Marconi, E. and Carcea, M. (2001) Pasta from No-Traditional Raw Materials. Cereal Foods World, 46, 522-530.
[76] Norton, I.T. and Foster, T.J. (2002) Hydrocolloids in Real Food Systems. In: Williams, P.A. and Phillips, G.O., Eds., Gums and Stabilizers in the Food Industry 11, Thomas Graham House, Cambridge, 187-200.
[77] Hoefler, A.C. (2004) Functions and Properties. Hydrocolloids, Eagan Press Ed. American Association of Cereal Chemist. St. Paul, Minesota, 27-41.
[78] Schwarzlaff, S.S., Johnson, J.M., Barbeau, W.E. and Duncan, S. (1996) Guar and Locust Bean Gums as Partial Replaces of All-Purpose Flour in Bread: An Objective and Sensory Evaluation. Journal of Food Quality, 19, 217-229. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-4557.1996.tb00417.x
[79] Susanna, S. and Prabhasankar, P. (2013) A Study on Development of Gluten Free Pasta and Its Biochemical and Immunological Validation. LWT-Food Science and Technology, 50, 613-621.
[80] Moreira, R., Chenlo, F. and Torres, M.D. (2013) Effect of Chia (Sativa hispanica L.) and Hydrocolloids on the Rheology of Gluten-Free Doughs Based on Chestnut Flour. LWT-Food Science and Technology, 50, 160-166.
[81] Anton, A. and Artfield, S. (2008) Hydrocolloids in Gluten-Free Breads: A Review. International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition, 59, 11-23. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09637480701625630
[82] Velázquez, N., Sánchez, H.D., Osella, C. and Santiago, L. (2012) Using White Sorghum Flour for Gluten-Free Breadmaking. International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition, 63, 491-497.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/09637486.2011.636734
[83] Inglett, G.E., Peterson, S.C., Carriere, C.J. and Maneepun, S. (2005) Rheological, Textural and Sensory Properties of Asian Noodles Containing an Oat Cereal Hydrocolloid. Food Chemistry, 90, 1-8.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2003.08.023
[84] Kaur, C.P., Sing, J. and Sing, N. (2005) Effect of Glycerol Monoestearate on the Physico-Chemical, Thermal, Rheological and Noodle Making Properties of Corn and Potato Starches. Food Hydrocolloids, 19, 839-849.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodhyd.2004.10.036
[85] Sozer, N. (2009) Rheological Properties of Rice Pasta Dough Supplemented with Proteins and Gums. Food Hydrocolloids, 23, 849-855. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodhyd.2008.03.016
[86] Lorenzo, G., Zaritzky, N.E. and Califano, A.N. (2008) Optimization of Non-Fermented Gluten-Free Dough Composition Based on Rheological Behavior for Industrial Production of “Empanadas” and Pie-Crusts. Journal of Cereal Science, 48, 224-231. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcs.2007.09.003
[87] Luna Jiménez, A. (2006) Valor nutritivo de la proteína de soya. Revista Investigación y Ciencia, Universidad de Aguas Calientes, Mexico, 14, 29-34.
[88] Aider, M., Haleux, D. and Melnikova, I. (2009) Skim Acidic Milk Whey Cryoconcentration and Assessment of Its Functional Properties: Impact of Processing Conditions. Innovative Food Science and Emerging Technologies, 10, 334-341. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ifset.2009.01.005
[89] Storck, C.R., da Rosa Zavareze, E., Gularte, M.A., Cardoso Elias, M., Molina Rosell, C.A. and Guerra Dias, R. (2013) Protein Enrichment and Its Effects on Gluten-Free Bread Characteristics. LWT-Food Science and Technology, 53, 346354.
[90] Visentín, A.N., Drago, S.R., Osella, C.A., de la Torre, M.A., Sánchez, H.D. and González, R.J. (2009) Efecto de la adición de harina de soja y concentrado proteico de suero de queso sobre la calidad del pan y la dializabilidad de los minerales. Archivos Latinoamericanos de Nutrición, 59, 325-331.
[91] Parra Huertas, R.A. (2009) Lactosuero: Importancia en la industria de alimentos. Revista Facultad Nacional de Agronomía, Medellín, 62, 4967-4982.
[92] Schaller, A. (2008) Sueros de lechería. Cadenas Alimentarias.
http://www.alimentosargentinos.gov.ar/0-3/r_44/cadenas/Lacteos.html
[93] Baiano, A., Lamacchia, C., Fares, C., Terracone, C. and La Notte, E. (2011) Cooking Behaviour and Acceptability of Composite Pasta Made of Semolina and Toasted or Partially Defatted Soy Flour. LWT-Food Science and Technology, 44, 12261232.
[94] Del Nobile, M.A., Baiano, A., Conte, A. and Mocci, G. (2005) Influence of Protein Content on Spaghetti Cooking Quality. Journal of Cereal Science, 41, 347-356. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcs.2004.12.003

  
comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2020 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.