Optical Methods in Orientation of High-Purity Germanium Crystal


Two optical methods, namely crystal facet reflection and etching pits reflection, were used to orient <100> and <111> high-purity germanium crystals. The X-ray diffraction patterns of three slices that were cut from the oriented <100> and <111> crystals were measured by X-ray diffraction. The experimental errors of crystal facet reflection method and etching pits reflection method are in the range of 0.05° - 0.12°. The crystal facet reflection method and etching pits reflection method are extremely simple and cheap and their accuracies are acceptable for characterizing high purity detector-grade germanium crystals.

Share and Cite:

G. Wang, Y. Sun, Y. Guan, D. Mei, G. Yang, A. Chiller and B. Gray, "Optical Methods in Orientation of High-Purity Germanium Crystal," Journal of Crystallization Process and Technology, Vol. 3 No. 2, 2013, pp. 60-63. doi: 10.4236/jcpt.2013.32009.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] F. T. Avignone, S. R. Elliott and J. Engel, “Double Beta Decay, Majorana Neutrinos, and Neutrino Mass,”
[2] A. Barabash, et al., “The Majorana Collaboration, the Majorana Neutrinoless Double-Beta Decay Experiment Pre-Conceptual Design Report,” 2006.
[3] R. Gaitskell, et al., “White Paper on the Majorana Zero-Neutrino Double-Beta Decay Experiment,”
[4] P. S. Barbeau, J. I. Collar and O. Tench, “Large-Mass Ultralow Noise Germanium Detectors: Performance and Applications in Neutrino and Astroparticle Physics,” Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics, Vol. 9, 2007, p. 009.
[5] D.-M. Mei, Z.-B. Ying and S. R. Elliott, “Cosmogenic Production as a Background in Searching for Rare Physics Processes,” Astroparticle Physics, Vol. 31, No. 6, 2009, pp. 417-420. doi:10.1016/j.astropartphys.2009.04.004
[6] E. Figueroa-Feliciano, “Towards Direct Detection of WIMPs with the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search,” AIP Conference Proceedings, Vol. 1200, 2010, pp. 959-962. doi:10.1063/1.3327773
[7] Z. Ahmed, et al., “Dark Matter Search Results from the CDMS II Experiment,” Science, Vol. 327, No. 5973, 2010, pp. 1619-1621. doi:10.1126/science.1186112
[8] A. J. Anderson, J. M. Conrad, E. Figueroa-Feliciano, K. Scholberg and J. Spitz, “Coherent Neutrino Scattering in Dark Matter Detectors,” Physical Review D, Vol. 84, 2011, pp. 013008-1-013008-8. doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.84.013008
[9] P. Glasow and E. E Haller, “The Effect of Dislocation on the Energy Resolution of High-Purity Germanium Detectors,” IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science, Vol. 23, No. 1, 1976, pp. 92-96. doi:10.1109/TNS.1976.4328221
[10] R. N. Hall, “Chemical Impurities and Lattice Defects in High-Purity Germanium,” IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science, Vol. 21, No. 1, 1974, pp. 260-272. doi:10.1109/TNS.1974.4327470
[11] W. L. Hansen and E. E. Haller, “A View of the Present Status and Future Prospecis of High Purity Germanium,” IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science, Vol. 21, No. 1, 1974, pp. 251-259. doi:10.1109/TNS.1974.4327469
[12] J. M. EI-Hussaini and S. T. Stephenson, “Single-Crystal Orientation Effects in K X-Ray Absorption Spectra of Ge,” Physical Review, Vol. 109, No. 1, 1958, pp. 51-54. doi:10.1103/PhysRev.109.51
[13] C. Marin and E. Dieguez, “Orientation of Single Crystals by Backreflection Laue Pattern Simulation,” World Scientific Publishing, Singapore, 1999. doi:10.1142/3290
[14] S. D. Al-Alagawi, M. A. Aboud and A. K. Ali, “Optical Method to Determine the Orientation of Monocrystalline Silicon Wafers,” Engineering and Technology, Vol. 25, 2007, pp. 950-954.
[15] C. Filippi, D. J. Singh, C. J. Umrigar, “All-Electron Local-Density and Generalized-Gradient Calculations of the Structural Properties of Semiconductors,” Physical Review B, Vol. 50, No. 20, 1994, pp. 14947-14951. doi:10.1103/PhysRevB.50.14947
[16] A. Smakula and J. Kalnajs, “Precision Determination of Lattice Constants with a Geiger-Counter X-Ray Diffractometer,” Physical Review, Vol. 99, No. 6, 1955, pp. 1737-1743. doi:10.1103/PhysRev.99.1737

Copyright © 2022 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.