Physiological Effects of Salmon Milt Nucleoprotein on Movement, Stress Tolerance and Lifespan of C. elegans


In recent years, various physiological functions of salmon milt extract, which consists of nucleic acid and nucleoprotein, have been reported. The objective of this study is to analyze the physiological function and its mechanism of salmon milt extract (NG) on nematodes (C. elegans). The wild type nematode N2 strain was bred on the plate containing of NG for four days, and its body length increased depending on NG concentration. When nematodes were bred with NG for a longer period, average lifespan was increased, and survival rate was increased by up to 20%. Generally, the movement of nematodes decreases with longer breeding period (i.e. aging). Analysis of movement (both gross thrashing movement and local pumping movement) showed that NG suppressed this decrease f movement with aging. Furthermore, the deease of survival rate by heat stress and oxidative stress was suppressed by NG administration. Nile Red staining analysis showed that fat accumulation varied depending on the concentration of NG. RT-PCR analysis revealed that the mRNA expression levels of the stress resistance genes sod-3 and sod-4 were increased. These results indicated that NG administration increased the expression of stress-tolerance-related genes, promoted stress tolerance, increased movement and prolonged lifespan in nematode.

Share and Cite:

H. Shintani, T. Furuhashi, H. Hano, M. Matsunaga, K. Usumi, N. Shudo and K. Sakamoto, "Physiological Effects of Salmon Milt Nucleoprotein on Movement, Stress Tolerance and Lifespan of C. elegans," Food and Nutrition Sciences, Vol. 3 No. 1, 2012, pp. 48-54. doi: 10.4236/fns.2012.31009.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] N. Saul, K. Pietsch, R. Menzel, S. R. Sturzenbaum and C. E. Steinberg CE, “Catechin Induced Longevity in C. elegans: From Key Regulator Genes to Disposable Soma,” Mechanisms of Ageing and Development, Vol. 130, No. 8, 2009, pp. 477-486. doi:10.1016/j.mad.2009.05.005
[2] T. Hashimoto, M. Horikawa, T. Nomura and K. Sakamoto, “Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide Extends the Lifespan of Caenorhabditis elegans Mediated by Sir-2.1 and Daf-16,” Biogerontology, Vol. 11, No. 1, 2010, pp. 31-43. doi:10.1007/s10522-009-9225-3
[3] J. J. Collins, K. Evason and K. Kornfeld, “Pharmacology of Delayed Aging and Extended Lifespan of Caenor- habditis elegans,” Experimental Gerontology, Vol. 41, No. 10, 2006, pp. 1032-9103. doi:10.1016/j.exger.2006.06.038
[4] T. Nomura, M. Horikawa, S. Shimamura, T. Hashimoto and K. Sakamoto, “Fat Accumulation in Caenorhabditis elegans is Mediated by SREBP Homolog SBP-1,” Genes and Nutrition, Vol. 5, No. 1, 2010, pp. 17-27. doi:10.1007/s12263-009-0157-y
[5] M. Horikawa and K. Sakamoto, “Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Are Involved in Regulatory Mechanism of Fatty Acid Homeostasis via Daf-2/Insulin Signaling in Caenorhabditis elegans,” Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology, Vol. 323, No. 2, 2010, pp. 183-192. doi:10.1016/j.mce.2010.03.004
[6] M. Horikawa and K. Sakamoto, “Fatty Acid Metabolism is Involved in Stress Resistance Mechanisms of Caenorhabditis elegans,” Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, Vol. 390, No. 4, 2009, pp. 1402-1407. doi:10.1016/j.bbrc.2009.11.006
[7] A. Zajac, S. Poprzecki, A. Zebrowska, M. Chalimoniuk and J. Langfort, “Arginine and Ornithine Supplementation Increases Growth Hormone and Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1 Serum Levels After Heavy-Resistance Exercise in Strength-Trained Athletes,” Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, Vol. 24, No. 4, 2010, pp. 1082-1090. doi:10.1519/JSC.0b013e3181d321ff
[8] M. B. Witte, F. J. Thornton, U. Tantry and A. Barbuk, “L-Arginine Supplementation Enhances Diabetic Wound Healing: Involvement of the Nitric Oxide Synthase and Arginase Pathways,” Metabolism, Vol. 51, No. 10, 2002, pp. 1269-1273. doi:10.1053/meta.2002.35185
[9] O. Pineiro, M. A. Ortiz, E. R. Mora, M. D. Hernandez-Navarro, R. G. Ceballos and C. G. Chamorro, “Effect of L-Arginine Oral Supplementation on Response to Myocardial Infarction in Hyper Cholesterolemic and Hypertensive Rats,” Plant Foods for Human Nutrition, Vol. 65, No. 1, 2010, pp. 31-37. doi:10.1007/s11130-009-0143-y
[10] E. A. Alymkina, E. V. Dolgova, A. S. Likhacheva, V. A. Roqachev, E. S. Tamara, P. N. Valeriy, A. P. Nelly, E. O. Konstantin, N. S. Dmitriy, R. C. Elena, N. Z. Stanislav, S. B. Sergei and A. S. Mikhail, “Combined Therapy with Cyclophosphamide and DNA Preparation Inhibits The Tumor Growth in Mice,” Genetic Vaccines and Therapy, Vol. 14, 2009, pp. 7-12. doi:10.1016/j.mad.2009.05.005
[11] S. Brenner, “The Genetics of Caenorhabditis Elegans,” Genetics, Vol. 77, No. 1, 1974, pp. 71-94.
[12] H. Hsin and C. Kenyon, “Signals from the Reproductive System Regulate the Lifespan of C. elegans,” Nature, Vol. 399, 1999, pp. 362-366.
[13] M. Horikawa, T. Nomura, T. Hashimoto and K. Sakamoto, “Elongation and Desaturation of Fatty Acids Are Critical in Growth, Lipid Metabolism, and Ontogeny of Caenorhabditis Elegans,” Journal of Biochemistry, Vol. 144, No. 2, 2008, pp. 149-158. doi:10.1093/jb/mvn055
[14] P. Chomczynski and N. Sacchi, “Single-Step Method of Rna Isolation by Acid Guanidinium Thiocyanate-PhenolChloroform Extraction,” Analytical Biochemistry, Vol. 162, No. 1, 1987, pp. 156-159.
[15] C. Hung, C. Xiong and K. Kornfeld, “Measurements of Age-Related Changes of Physiological Processes That Predict Lifespan of Caenorhabditis elegans,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, Vol. 101, 2004, pp. 8084-8089. doi:10.1073/pnas.0400848101
[16] K. Ashrafi, F. Y. Chang, J. L. Watts, G. F. Andrew, S. K. Ravi, A. Julie and R. Gary, “Genome-Wide RNAi Analysis of Caenorhabditis elegans Fat Regulatory Genes,” Nature, Vol. 421, No. 6920, 2003, pp. 268-272.
[17] D. Cristina, M. Cary, A. Lunceford, C. Clarke and C. Kenyon, “A Regulated Response to Impaired Respiration Slows Behavioral Rates and Increases Lifespan in Caenorhabditis elegans,” PLoS Genetics, Vol. 5, No. 4, 2009, pp. 1-15. doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1000450
[18] M. P. Giglio, T. Hunter, J. V. Bannister and G. J. Hunter, “The Manganese Superoxide Dismutase Gene of Caenorhabditis elegans,” Biochemistry & Molecular Biology International, Vol. 33, No. 1, 1994, pp. 37-40.
[19] T. Furuyama, T. Nakazawa, I. Nakano and N. Mori, “Identification of Differential Distribution Patterns of mRNAs and Consensus Binding Sequences for Mouse DAF-16 Homologues,” Biochemical Journal, Vol. 349, 2000, pp. 629-634.
[20] C. T. Murphy, S. A. McCarroll, C. I. Barqmann, A. Fraser, R. S. Kamath, S. Ahringer, H. Li and C. Kenyon, “Genes that Act Downstream of DAF-16 to Influence the Lifespan of Caenorhabditis elegans,” Nature, Vol. 424, No. 6946, 2003, pp. 277-283.
[21] Y. Honda and S. Honda, “The Daf-2 Gene Network for Longevity Regulates Oxidative Stress Resistance and Mn-Superoxide Dismutase Gene Expression in Caenorhabditis elegans,” The Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology Journal, Vol. 13, No. 11, 1999, pp. 1358-1393. doi:10.1038/nature05837
[22] S. H. Panowski, S. Wolff, H. Aguilaniu, J. Durieux and A. Dillin, “PHA-4/Foxa Mediates Diet-Restriction-Induced Longevity of C. elegans,” Nature, Vol. 447, No. 7144, 2007, pp. 550-55.
[23] J. H. An, K. Vranas, M. Lucke, H. Inoue, N. Hisamoto, K. Matsumoto and T. K. Blackwell, “Regulation of the Caenorhabditis elegans Oxidative Stress Defense Protein SKN- 1 by Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, Vol. 102, No. 45, 2005, pp. 16275-16280. doi:10.1073/pnas.0508105102

Copyright © 2020 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.