Phytochemical Compositions, Antioxidant Properties, and Colon Cancer Antiproliferation Effects of Turkish and Oregon Hazelnut
Haiwen Li, John W. Parry
DOI: 10.4236/fns.2011.210153   PDF    HTML     6,066 Downloads   10,925 Views   Citations


Roasted and raw Turkish and Oregon hazelnuts were examined. Whole nuts, skins, and skinless nuts of both hazelnut varieties were tested for fat contents, fatty acid profiles. Hazelnut and other byproducts were extracted with 50% ace- tone and examined for total phenolic contents (TPC), antioxidant activities against the peroxyl (ORAC) and DPPH radicals, and were also administered in vitro to the human colon cancer HT-29 cell line to determine antiproliferative effects. The Turkish hazelnuts contained over 65% total oil while the Oregon roasted variety contained 43.8%. The primary fatty acid in both was oleic acid (18:1n-9) comprising 76.7 g/100 g oil in the Oregon variety and 83.3 g/100 g oil in the Turkish variety. The TPC were 91.4 and 102.16 mg gallic acid equivalents/ g sample for the Turkish roasted hazelnut skin and Oregon roasted hazelnut skin respectively, at least 30-folds as high as the hazelnut without skin. Turkish roasted hazelnut skin had the highest ORAC value of 1166.27 Trolox equivalents (TE) mmol/g sample (TE mmol/g), it is 38 times as high as the Oregon roasted hazelnut no skin which as a value of 30.2 TE mmol/g sample. The range of ED50 of DPPH? is from 118.22 to 0.075 mg sample equivalents/ mL among the samples, Oregon roasted hazelnut skin and Turkish raw hazelnut no skin exhibit the weakest and strongest ability to reduce DPPH? respectively. At 6 mg/mL media Oregon roasted hazelnut skin extract significantly inhibited the growth of the HT-29 cells by 96h following 4 days of treatment, and no effect was seen from the Turkish roasted skinned hazelnut extract. The Turkish raw hazelnut had significantly higher antioxidant activities compared to the Oregon roasted variety which may be explained by chemical changes during heating or possibly the total oil to flour ratio.

Share and Cite:

H. Li and J. Parry, "Phytochemical Compositions, Antioxidant Properties, and Colon Cancer Antiproliferation Effects of Turkish and Oregon Hazelnut," Food and Nutrition Sciences, Vol. 2 No. 10, 2011, pp. 1142-1149. doi: 10.4236/fns.2011.210153.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, FAOSTAT data, 2011.
[2] M. Ozdemir, F. Ackurt, M. Kaplan, M. Yildiz, M. Loker, T. Gurcan, G. Biringen, A. Okay and F. G. Seyhan, “Evaluation of New Turkish Hybrid Hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.) Varieties: Fatty Acid Composition, ?-Tocopherol Content, Mineral Composition and Stability,” Food Chemistry, Vol. 73, 2001, pp. 411-415.
[3] A. I. Koksal, N. Artik, A. Simsek and N. Gunes, “Nutrient Composition of Hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.) Varieties Cultivated in Turkey,” Food Chemistry, Vol. 99, No. 3, 2006, pp. 509-515. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2005.08.013
[4] W. E. Connor, “Importance of n-3 Fatty Acids in Health and Disease,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 71, Suppl. 1, 2000, pp. 171S-175S.
[5] W. J. Aronson, J. A. Glaspy, S. T. Reddy, D. Reese, D. Heber and D. Bagga, “Modulation of Omega-3/Omega-6 Polyunsaturated Ratios with Dietary Fish Oils in Men with Prostate Cancer,” Urology, Vol. 58, No. 2, 2001, pp. 283-288. doi:10.1016/S0090-4295(01)01116-5
[6] H. Iso, S. Sato, U. Umemura, M. Kudo, K. Koike, A. Kitamura, H. Imano, T. Okamura, Y. Naito and T. Shimamoto, “Linoleic Acid, Other Fatty Acids, and the Risk of Stroke,” Stroke, Vol. 33, 2002, pp. 2086-2093. doi:10.1161/01.STR.0000023890.25066.50
[7] S. L. Tey, R. C. Brown, C. M. Chisholm, C. M. Delahunty, A. R. Gray and S. M. Williams, “Effects of Different Forms of Hazelnuts on Blood Lipids and ?-Toco- pherol Concentrations in Mildly Hypercholesterolemic Individuals,” European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 65, 2011, pp. 117-124. doi:10.1038/ejcn.2010.200
[8] C. D. Gardner and H. C. Kraemer, “Monounsaturated versus Polyunsaturated Dietary Fat and Serum Lipids. A Meta-Analysis,” Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology, Vol. 15, 1995, pp. 1917-1927. doi:10.1161/01.ATV.15.11.1917
[9] L. S. Maguire, S. M. O’Sullivan, K. Galvin, T. P. O’Connor and N. M. O’Brien, “Fatty Acid Profile, Tocopherol, Squalene and Phytosterol Content of Walnuts, Almonds, Peanuts, Hazelnuts and the Macadamia Nut,” International Journal of Food Sciences & Nutrition, Vol. 55, No. 3, 2004, pp. 171-178. doi:10.1080/09637480410001725175
[10] S. Oshima, F. Ojima, H. Sakamoto, Y. Ishiguro and J. Terao, “Supplementation with Carotenoids Inhibits Singlet Oxygen-Mediated Oxidation of Human Plasma Low-Density Lipoprotein,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, Vol. 44, No. 8, 1996, pp. 2306-2309. doi:10.1021/jf950350i
[11] J. Parry and L. Yu, “Fatty Acid Content and Antioxidant Properties of Cold-Pressed Marionberry, Boysenberry, Red Raspberry, and Blueberry Seed Oils,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, Vol. 53, No. 3, 2005, pp. 566-573. doi:10.1021/jf048615t
[12] J. Parry, L. Su, J. Moore, Z. Cheng, M. Luther, J. N. Rao, J. Y. Wang and L. Yu, “Chemical Compositions, Antioxidant Capacities, and Antiproliferative Activities of Selected Fruit Seed Flours,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, Vol. 54, No. 11, 2006, pp. 3773-3778. doi:10.1021/jf060325k
[13] L. Yu, K. Zhou and J. Parry, “Antioxidant Properties of Cold-Pressed Black Caraway, Carrot, Cranberry, and Hemp Seed Oils,” Food Chemistry, Vol. 91, No. 4, 2005, pp. 723-729. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2004.06.044
[14] H. C. Yurttas, H. W. Schafer and J. J. Warthesen, “Antioxidant Activity of Nontocopherol Hazelnut (Corylus spp.) Phenolics,” Journal of Food Chemistry, Vol. 65, No. 2, 2000, pp. 276-280. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2621.2000.tb15993.x
[15] F. Shahidi, C. Alasalvar and M. Liyana-Pathirana, “Antioxidant Phytochemicals in Hazelnut Kernel (Corylus avellana L.) and Hazelnut Byproducts,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, Vol. 55, No. 4, 2007, pp. 1212-1220. doi:10.1021/jf062472o
[16] W. Kalt, C. F. Forney, A. Martin and R. Prior, “Antioxidant Capacity, Vitamin C, Phenolics, and Anthocyanins after Fresh Storage of Small Fruits,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, Vol. 47, No. 11, 1999, pp. 4638-4644. doi:10.1021/jf990266t
[17] P. Ninfali and M. Bacchiocca, “Polyphenols and Antioxidant Capacity of Vegetables under Fresh and Frozen Conditions,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, Vol. 51, No. 8, 2003, pp. 2222-2226. doi:10.1021/jf020936m
[18] J. S. Bonvehi and F. V. Coll, “Oil Content, Stability and Fatty Acid Composition of the Main Varieties of Catalonian Hazelnuts (Corylus avellana L.),” Food Chemistry, Vol. 48, No. 3, 1993, pp. 237-241. doi:10.1016/0308-8146(93)90133-Z
[19] L. Yu, L. Scanlin, J. Wilson and G. Schmidt, “Rosemary Extracts as Inhibitors of Lipid Oxidation and Color Change in Cooked Turkey Products during Refrigerated Storage,” Journal of Food Chemistry, Vol. 67, No. 2, 2002, pp. 582-585. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2621.2002.tb10642.x
[20] X. Wu, G. R. Beecher, J. M. Holden, D. B. Haytowitz, S. E. Gebhart and R. Prior, “Lipophilic and Hydrophilic Antioxidant Capacities of Foods in the United States,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, Vol. 52, No. 12, 2004, pp. 4026-4037. doi:10.1021/jf049696w
[21] J. Yang, L. Halim and R. H. Liu, “Antioxidant and Antiproliferative Activities of Common Nuts,” IFT Annual Meeting, New Orleans, 2005.
[22] C. Pinzino, B. Nanni and M. Zandomeneghi, “Aging, Free Radicals, and Antioxidants in Wheat Seeds,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, Vol. 47, No. 4, 1999, pp. 1333-1339. doi:10.1021/jf980876d
[23] V. Hentschel, K. Kranl, J. Hollmann, M. G. Lindhauer, V. Bohm and R. Bitsch, “Spectrophotometric Determination of Yellow Pigment Content and Evaluation of Carotenoids by High-Perfomance Liquid Chromatography in Durum Wheat Grain,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, Vol. 50, No. 23, 2002, pp. 6663-6668. doi:10.1021/jf025701p
[24] J. Moore, Z. Hao, K. Zhou, M. Luther, J. Costa and L. Yu, “Carotenoid, Tocopherol, Phenolic Acid, and Antioxidant Properties of Maryland-Grown Soft Wheat,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, Vol. 53, No. 17, 2005, pp. 6649-6657. doi:10.1021/jf050481b
[25] L. Yu, J. Perret, M. Harris, J. Wilson and S. Haley, “Antioxidant Properties of Bran Extracts from ‘Akron’ Wheat Grown at Different Locations,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, Vol. 51, No. 6, 2003, pp. 1566-1570. doi:10.1021/jf020950z
[26] S. Yoshida, A. Honda, Y. Matsuzaki, S. Fukushima, N. Tanaka, A. Takagiwa, Y. Fujimoto, H. Miyazaki and G. Salen, “Anti-Proliferative Action of Endogenous Dehydroepiandrosterone Metabolites on Human Cancer Cell Lines,” Steroids, Vol. 68, No. 1, 2003, pp. 73-83. doi:10.1016/S0039-128X(02)00117-4
[27] L. Qiao, M. Koutsos, L. L. Tsai, V. Kozoni, J. Guzman, S. J. Shiff and B. Rigas, “Staurosporine Inhibits the Proliferation, Alters the Cell Cycle Distribution and Induces Apoptosis in HT-29 Human Colon Adenocarcinoma Cells,” Cancer Letter, Vol. 107, No. 1, 1996, pp. 83-89. doi:10.1016/0304-3835(96)04346-7
[28] USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 19, 2007.
[29] M. Kornsteiner, K.-H. Wagner and I. Elmadfa, “Tocopherols and Total Phenolics in 10 Different Nut Types,” Food Chemistry, Vol. 98, No. 2, 2006, pp. 381-387. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2005.07.033
[30] C. Alasalvar, F. Shahidi, C. M. Liyanapathirana and T. Ohshima, “Turkish Tombul Hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.) Compositional Characteristics,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, Vol. 51, No. 13, 2003, pp. 3790-3796. doi:10.1021/jf0212385
[31] J. S. Amaral, S. Casal, R. M. Seabra and B. P. Oliveira, “Effect of Roasting on Hazelnut,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, Vol. 54, No. 4, 2006, pp. 1315-1321. doi:10.1021/jf052287v
[32] J. Parcerisa, D. G. Richardson, M. Rafecas, R. Codony and J. Boatella, “Fatty Acid, Tocopherol and Sterol Content of Some Hazelnut Varieties (Corylus avellana L.) Harvested in Oregon (USA),” Journal of Chromatography A, Vol. 805, No. 1-2, 1998, pp. 259-268. doi:10.1016/S0021-9673(98)00049-1
[33] J. Parcerisa, J. Boatella, R. Codony, A. Farran, J. Garcia, A. Lopez, M. Rafecas and A. Romero, “Influence of Variety and Geographical Origin on the Lipid Fraction of Hazelnuts (Corylus avellana L.) from Spain: I. Fatty Acid Composition,” Food Chemistry, Vol. 48, No. 4, 1993, pp. 411-414. doi:10.1016/0308-8146(93)90326-B
[34] C. Crews, P. Hough, J. Godward, P. Brereton, M. Lees, S. Guiet and W. Winkelmann, “Study of the Main Constituents of Some Authentic Hazelnut Oils,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, Vol. 53, No. 12, 2005, pp. 4843-4852. doi:10.1021/jf047836w
[35] C. Alasalvar, M. Karaamac, R. Amarowicz and F. Shahidi, “Antioxidant and Antiradical Activities in Extracts of Hazelnut Kernel (Corylus avellana L.) and Hazelnut Green Leafy Cover,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, Vol. 54, No. 13, 2006, pp. 4826-4832. doi:10.1021/jf0601259
[36] M. Monagas, L. Garrido, L. Lebr?n-Aguilar, M. C. Gmez-Cordov, A. Rybarczyk, R. Amarowicz and B. Bartolom, “Comparative Flavan-3-ol Profile and Antioxidant Capacity of Roasted Peanut, Hazelnut, and Almond Skins,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, Vol. 57, No. 22, 2009, pp. 10590-10599. doi:10.1021/jf901391a
[37] B. Janicke, G. Onning and S. M. Oredsson, “Differential Effects of Ferulic Acid and p-Coumaric Acid of S Phase Distribution and Length of S Phase in the Human Colonic Cell Line Caco-2,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, Vol. 53, No. 17, 2005, pp. 6658-6665. doi:10.1021/jf050489l

Copyright © 2023 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.