In vitro Bile Acid Binding of Mustard Greens, Kale, Broccoli, Cabbage and Green Bell Pepper Improves with Sautéing Compared with Raw or Other Methods of Preparation


Bile acid binding potential of foods and food fractions has been related to lowering the risk of heart disease and that of cancer. Steam cooking has been observed to significantly improve bile acid binding of green/leafy vegetables. It was hypothesized that other cooking methods could further improve the bile acid binding of various vegetables. Sautée cooking resulted in in vitro bile acid binding measured on a dry matter basis relative to cholestyramine of 14% for mustard greens and kale, 9% for broccoli, 8% for collard greens, 6% for cabbage, and 5% for green bell pepper. These results point to the significantly different (P ≤ 0.05) health promoting potential of mustard greens = kale > broccoli > collard greens > cabbage > green bell pepper. Sautéing significantly improved in vitro bile acid binding of mustard greens, kale, broccoli, cabbage and green bell pepper compared with steaming, boiling or raw (uncooked). Collard greens exhibited significantly higher bile acid binding by steaming compared with sautéing, boiling or raw. Data suggest that the cooking method with most heath promoting potential for mustard greens, kale, broccoli, cabbage and green bell pepper should be sautéing. Steaming should be used for collard greens as the cooking method. These green/leafy vegetables, when consumed regularly after sautéing, would promote a healthy lifestyle and have the potential to lower the risk of premature degenerative diseases.

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T. Kahlon, R. Milczarek and M. Chiu, "In vitro Bile Acid Binding of Mustard Greens, Kale, Broccoli, Cabbage and Green Bell Pepper Improves with Sautéing Compared with Raw or Other Methods of Preparation," Food and Nutrition Sciences, Vol. 3 No. 7, 2012, pp. 951-958. doi: 10.4236/fns.2012.37126.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


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