Assessment of Groundwater Quality Monitoring Network Using Cluster Analysis, Shib-Kuh Plain, Shur Watershed, Iran


In addition to failure in monitoring water quality in the study area, the monitoring networks are not designed based on standard guidelines; moreover, there is no ongoing assessment of these networks. The great or small number of sites in the monitoring networks will cause problems. This paper aims to evaluate the monitoring networks of the changes in groundwater quality of the Shib-Kuh aquifer established in 2005 in South West of Iran. The aim of this study is to improve the monitoring networks and save expenses. In this aquifer, the groundwater main chemical anions, cations, EC, TDS, TH, SAR and pH are measured in 20 sites. The statistical cluster analysis methods are used and observations, variables and sampling sites are analyzed and evaluated. The results showed the probability of about 25 percent reduction in the sites. It also proved that it was possible for some of the measuring parameters to have been removed. Cluster analysis method is a suitable way to evaluate the quality of establishment as well as the function of the monitoring networks of water resources. Through the application of this method, the number of sites, variables, or both of these factors can be optimized and this optimization leads to upgrading of monitoring networks.

Share and Cite:

Hosseinimarandi, H. , Mahdavi, M. , Ahmadi, H. , Motamedvaziri, B. and Adelpur, A. (2014) Assessment of Groundwater Quality Monitoring Network Using Cluster Analysis, Shib-Kuh Plain, Shur Watershed, Iran. Journal of Water Resource and Protection, 6, 618-624. doi: 10.4236/jwarp.2014.66060.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Peter, H. and Basvander, G. (2004) Regional Monitoring of Temporal Changes in Groundwater Quality. Journal of Hydrology, 296, 192-220.
[2] Stigter, T.Y., Ribeiro, L. and Carvalho, D.A. (2006) Application of a Groundwater Quality Index as an Assessment and Communication Tool in Agro-Environmental Policies—Two Portuguese Case Studies. Journal of Hydrology, 327, 578-591.
[3] Husam, B. (2010) Assessment of a Groundwater Quality Monitoring Network Using Vulnerability Mapping and Geostatistics: A Case Study from Heretaunga Plains. New Zealand Agricultural Water Management, 97, 240-246.
[4] Pooladian, A. and Kowsar, S.A. (1997) Salinity Reduction in Groundwater by Floodwater Spreading. 8th International Conference on Rainwater Catchment Systems, Tehran, 596-600.
[5] Dadrasi, A. (1999) Watershed Management Effects on Soil and Water Resources with Flood Control. Proceedings of the 5th Conference on Science and Watershed Engineering, Gorgan, 1-10.
[6] Hatvani, I.G., Kovacs J., Szekely I., Jakusch P. and Korponai J. (2011) Analysis of Long-Term Water Quality Changes in the Kis-Balaton Water Protection System with Time Series, Cluster Analysis and Wilks Lambda Distribution. Ecological Engineering, 37, 629-635.
[7] Ghahari, G.H. and Pakparvar, M. (2007) Effect of Floodwater Spreading and Consumption on Groundwater Resources in Gareh Bygone Plain. Iranian Journal of Range and Desert Research, 14, 368-390.
[8] Hashemi, H., Berndtsson, R. and Kompani-Zare, M. (2012) Steady-State Unconfined Aquifer Simulation of the Gareh-Bygone Plain, Iran. The Open Hydrology Journal, 6, 58-67.
[9] Todd, D.K. (1976) Groundwater Hydrology. 2nd Edition, John Willey and Sons Inc., New York.
[10] Munoz, R., Ritter, A. and Li, Y.C. (2005) Dynamic Factor Analysis of Groundwater Quality Trend in an Agricultural Area Adjacent to Everglades National Park. Journal of Contaminant Hydrology, 80, 49-70.
[11] Dhar, R.K., Zhen, Y., Stute, M., Van Geen, A., Cheng, Z., Shanewaz, M., Shamsudduha, M., Houque, M.A., Rahman, M.W. and Ahmed, K.M. (2008) Temporal Variability of Groundwater Chemistry in Shallow and Deep Aquifers of Aria-Hazar, Bangladesh. Journal of Contaminant Hydrology, 99, 97-111.
[12] Okkonen, J. and Kløve, B. (2012) Assessment of Temporal and Spatial Variation in Chemical Composition of Groundwater in an Unconfined Esker Aquifer in the Cold Temperate Climate of Northern Finland. Cold Regions Science and Technology, 71, 118-128.
[13] Rebecca, M.P., Lischeid, G., Epting, J. and Huggenberger, P. (2012) Principal Component Analysis of Time Series for Identifying Indicator Variables for Riverine Groundwater Extraction Management. Journal of Hydrology, 432-433, 137-144.

Copyright © 2024 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.