Synthesis and controlled release of cloprop herbicides from cloprop-layered double hydroxide and cloprop-zinc-layered hydroxide nanocomposites


Two phenoxyherbicide nanocomposites, namely cloprop-layered double hydroxide and cloprop-zinc- layered hydroxide nanocomposites, have been synthesized by using co-precipitation and direct reaction method. PXRD pattern showed an expansion of interlayer spacing with the value of 21.0 Å and 22.7 Å for cloprop-layered double hydroxide and cloprop-zinc-layered hydroxide nanocomposite, respectively. It is evident from FTIR and elemental analyses that both nanocomposites were successfully intercalated between the interlayers of layered metal hydroxide. Controlled release of cloprop anion from interlayer of nanocomposites for both cloprop-layered double hydroxide and cloprop-zinc-layered hydroxide nanocomposite into phosphate solution was rapid initially and slow thereafter. The percentage of accumulated release of cloprop anion from cloprop-zinc-layered hydroxide nanocomposite was slightly higher than that from cloprop-layered double hydroxide nanocomposite. Kinetic behavior of cloprop release was governed by pseudo-second-order for cloprop-layered double hydroxide nanocomposite while parabolic diffusion for cloprop-zinc-layered hydroxide nanocomposite. Results from this study highlight the potential of both nanocomposites as capsulated material for controlled release of cloprop phenoxyherbicides anion.

Share and Cite:

Hashim, N. , Zobir Hussein, M. , Md Isa, I. , Kamari, A. , Mohamed, A. , Mohamad Jaafar, A. and Taha, H. (2014) Synthesis and controlled release of cloprop herbicides from cloprop-layered double hydroxide and cloprop-zinc-layered hydroxide nanocomposites. Open Journal of Inorganic Chemistry, 4, 1-9. doi: 10.4236/ojic.2014.41001.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Cardoso, L.P. and Valim, J.B. (2006) Study of acids removal by calcined Mg-Al-CO3-LDH. Journal of Physics and Chemistry of Solid, 67, 987-993.
[2] Hermosin, M.C., Calderon, M.J., Aguer, J.P. and Cornejo, J. (2001) Organoclays for controlled release of the herbicide fenuron. Pest Management Science, 57, 803-809.
[3] Cavani, F., Triffiro, F. and Vaccani, A. (1991) Hydrotalcite-type anionic clays: Preparation, properties and application. Catalysis Today, 11, 173-301.
[4] Reichle, W.T. (1986) Synthesis of anionic clay minerals (mixed metal hydroxides, hydrotalcite). Solid State Ionics, 22, 135-142.
[5] Constantino, V.R.L. and Pinnavaia, T.J. (1995) Basic properties of Mg2+1-xAl3+x layered double hydroxide intercalated by carbonate, hydroxide, chloride and sulphate ions. Inorganic Chemistry, 34, 883-892.
[6] Khan, S.B., Liu, C., Jang, E.S., Akhtar, K. and Han, H. (2011) Encapsulation of organic UV ray absorbents into layered double hydroxide for photochemical properties. Materials Letters, 65, 2923-2926.
[7] Isa, I.M., Dahlan, S.N.A., Hashim, N., Ahmad, M. and Ghani, S.A. (2012) Electrochemical sensor for cobalt(II) by modified carbon paste electrode with Zn/A1-2(3- Chlorophenoxy) propionate Nanocomposite. International Journal of Electrochemical Science, 7, 7797-7808.
[8] Isa, I.M., Sohaimi, N.M., Hashim, N. Kamari, A., Mohamed, A., Ahmad, M., Ghani, S.A. and Suyanta (2013) Determination of salicylate ion by potentiometric membrance electrode based on zinc aluminium layered double hydroxides-4(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)butyrate nanocomposite. International Journal of Electrochemical Science, 8, 2112-2121.
[9] Li, J., Li, Y. and Dong, H. (2008) Controlled release of herbicide acetochlor from clay/carboxylmethylcellulose gel formulations. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 56, 1336-1342.
[10] Cordeiro, C.S., Arizaga, G.G.C., Ramos, L.P. and Wypych, F. (2008) A new zinc hydroxide nitrate heterogeneous catalyst for the esterification of free fatty acids and the transesterification of vegetable oils. Catalysis Communications, 9, 2140-2143.
[11] Mohsin, S.M.N., Hussein, M.Z., Sarijo, S.H., Fakurazi, S., Arulselvan, P. and Hin, T.Y.Y. (2013) Synthesis of (cinnamate-zinc layered hydroxide) intercalation compound for sunscreen application. Chemistry Central Journal, 7, 26.
[12] Hussein, M.Z., Hashim, N., Yahaya, A.H. and Zainal, Z. (2009) Controlled release formulation of pesticide agrochemical based on 4-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)butyrate nanohybrid. Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, 9, 2140-2147.
[13] He, J., Wei, M., Li, B., Kang, Y., Evans, D.G. and Duan, X. (2006) Layered Double Hydroxide. Structure and bonding: Preparation of layered double hydroxides. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg.
[14] Xu, S. and Wang, Z.L. (2011) One-dimensional ZnO nanostructures: Solution growth and functional properties. Nano Research, 4, 1013-1098.
[15] Ragavan, A., Khan, A.I. and O’Hare, D. (2006) Intercalation and controlled release of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid using rhombohedral [LiAl2(OH)6]Cl.xH2O. Journal of Physics Chemistry and Solids, 67, 983-968.
[16] Hussein, M.Z., Sarijo, S.H., Yahaya, A.H. and Zainal, Z. (2007) Synthesis of 4-chlorophenoxyacetate-zinc-aluminium layered double hydroxide nanocomposite: Physicochemical and controlled release properties. Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, 7, 2852-2862.
[17] Hussein, M.Z., Jubri, Z.B., Zainal, Z. and Yahaya, A.H. (2004) Pamoate intercalated Zn-Al layered double hydroxide for the formation of layered organic-inorganic intercalate. Materials Science-Poland, 22, 57-67.
[18] Ambrogi, V., Fardella, G. and Grandolini, G. (2001) Intercalation compounds of hydrotalicite-like anionic clays with anti flammatory agents: I. Intercalation and in vitro release of ibufuren. International Journal of Pharmacy, 220, 23-32.
[19] Hussein, M.Z., Zainal, Z., Yahaya, A.H. and Foo, D.W.V. (2002) Controlled release of plant growth regulator α-naphthalane-acetate from the lamella of Zn-Al-layered double hydroxide nanocomposite. Journal of Controlled Release, 82, 417-427.
[20] Gunawan, P. and Xu, R. (2008) Direct control of drug release behavior from layered double hydroxides through particle interactions. Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 97, 4367-4378.
[21] Kodama, T., Harada, Y., Ueda, M., Shimizu, K., Shuto, K. and Komarneni, S. (2001) Selective exchange and fixation of strontium ions with ultrafine Na-4-mica. Langmuir, 17, 4881-4886.
[22] Costa, P. and Lobo, J.M.S. (2001) Modeling and comparison of dissolution profiles. European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 13, 123-133.
[23] Qiu, H., Lv, L., Pan, B.C., Zhang, Q.J., Zhang, W.M. and Zhang, Q.X. (2009) Critical review in adsorption kinetic models. Journal of Zhejiang University Science A, 10, 716-724.
[24] Ho, Y.S. (2006) Review of second-order models for adsorption systems. Journal of Hazardous Materials, B136, 681-689.
[25] Kong, X., Shi, S., Han, J., Zhu, F., Wei, M. and Duan, X. (2010) Preparation of Glycy-l-Tyrosine intercalated layered double hydroxide film and its in vitro release behavior. Chemical Engineering Journal, 157, 598-604.
[26] Li, W., Yan, D., Gao, R., Lu, J., Wei, M. and Duan, X. (2013) Recent advances in stimuli-responsive photofunctional materials based on accommodation of chromophore into layered double hydroxide nanogallery. Journal of Nanomaterials, 2013, 14 p.

Copyright © 2023 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.