Evaluation of Acute Chromium (III) Toxicity in Relation to Daphnia Similis
Petr Melnikov, Tânia C. M. de Freitas
DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2011.32015   PDF    HTML     6,467 Downloads   10,835 Views   Citations


Acute chromium (III) toxicity in relation to Daphnia similis, most appropriate for Brazilian environment has been evaluated. The preliminary toxicity test showed that the median effective concentration was 10 mg/l. After having performed the final test, the immobility percentage was calculated for each concentration in relation to the total number of the used organisms within the chosen pH range. It was shown that the proposed methodology rendered realistic results and the 48-h CE50 value under the test conditions is 3.24 mg/l. The minimum concentration that did not show any toxicity to Daphnia similis was 2.5 mg of chromium (III) per liter. The obtained level is superior to the maximum limit recommended by the Brazilian norms, 0.5 mg/l.

Share and Cite:

P. Melnikov and T. de Freitas, "Evaluation of Acute Chromium (III) Toxicity in Relation to Daphnia Similis," Journal of Water Resource and Protection, Vol. 3 No. 2, 2011, pp. 127-130. doi: 10.4236/jwarp.2011.32015.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] E. S. Guimar?es, P. M. Lacava and N. P. Magalh?es, “Ava- lia??o da Toxicidade Aguda com Daphnia similis na água Captada no Rio Paraíba do Sul e Processada na Esta??o de Tratamento água do Município de Jacareí - SP – Brasil,” Revista de Engenharia Sanitária e Ambiental, Vol. 9, No. 2, 2005, pp. 124-130.
[2] S. M. Branco, “Hidrobiologia Aplicada à Engenharia Sanitária,” 3rd Edition, CETESB/ASCETESB, S?o Paulo, 1986.
[3] UNIVILLE (Universidade da Regi?o de Joinville), “Linguado Canal, Studies of Marine Biota and Environmental Chemistry of Babitonga Gulf Final Report,” Univille, Joinville, 2004.
[4] S. T. Matsumoto and M. A. Marin-Morales, “A??o do Cromo Trivalente e Hexavalente sobre a Célula,” In: Anais do I Congresso de Ecotoxicologia, Congresso Brasileiro de Ecotoxicologia, Florianópolis, 2004, p. 125.
[5] C. Fleury, A. Petit, F. Mwale, A. Antoniou, D. J. Zukor, M. Tabrizian and O. L. Huk, “Effect of Cobalt and Chromium Ions on Human MG-63 Osteoblasts in Vitro: Morphology, Cytotoxicity and Oxidative Stress,” Biomaterials, Vol. 27, No. 36, 2006, pp. 3351-3360. doi:10.1016/j.biomaterials.2006.01.035
[6] USEPA (US Environmental Protection Agency), “Short Term Methods for Measuring the Acute Toxicity of Effluents and Receiving Waters to Freshwater and Marine Organisms,” EPA Report, Washington, 1985.
[7] ABNT (Brazilian Association of Technical Norms), “N- BR 12713 - Water Ecotoxicology - Acute Toxicity - Assay with Daphnia ssp. (Cladocera, Crustacea),” Rio de Janeiro, 2004.
[8] E. Gherard-Goldeinstein, E. Bertoleti, P. A. Zagatt, R. P. A. Araujo and L. L. C. Ramos,” Proceedings for the Toxicity Test Application in Monitoring of Liquid Effluents, CETESB, S?o Paulo, 1990.
[9] J. S. A. Langerwerf, H. A. Bakkeren and W. M. T. Jongen, “A Comparison of the Mutagenicity of Soluble Trivalent Chromium Compounds with that of Potassium Chromate,” Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, Vol. 9, No. 1, 1985, pp. 92-100. doi:10.1016/0147-6513(85)90039-9
[10] J. C. Mari?o-Balsa, E. Poza, E. Vazquez and R. Beiras, “Comparative Toxicity of Dissolved Metals to Early Larval Stages of Palaemon serratus, Maja squinado, and Homarus gammarus (Crustacea: Decapoda),” Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, Vol. 39, No. 3, 2000, pp. 345-351. doi:10.1007/s002440010114
[11] L. Beal, “Evaluation of Two-Phases Anaerobic Process in the Treatment of Tannery Effluents,” Dissertation at Thesis, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brasil, 1995.
[12] V. V. Bossche, G. Gavend and M. Brun, “Chromium Tanned Leather and Its Environmental Impact,” The Chromium File of International Chromium Development Association, CTC - Centre Technique Cuir Chaussure Maroquinerie, Vol. 4, Lyon, 1997.
[13] J. W. Hill, R. H. Petrucci and S. S. Perry, “General Chemistry,” Prentice Hall, 4th Edition, New Jersey, 2004.
[14] J. H. ZAR, “Biostatistical Analysis,” Prentice Hall, New Jersey, 1984.
[15] CONAMA (National Counsel for Environment), “Resolution 357,” Ministry of Environment, National Consuel for Enviromental, Brasila, 2005.

Copyright © 2024 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.