Characterization of winged bean (Psophocarpus tetragonolobus (L.) DC.) based on molecular, chemical and physiological parameters


Winged bean (Psophocarpus tetragonolobus (L.) DC.) is a potential legume crop of the tropics with high protein and oil content in the seeds. Analysis of the mutual genotypic relationships among twenty four genotypes of P. tetragonolobus through Mantel test found a significant correlation (r = 0.839) between similarity matrices of the results obtained from the use of the RAPD and ISSR molecular markers. The UPGMA tree based on Jaccard’s similarity coefficient generated from their cumulative data showed two distinct clusters and seven sub-clusters among these accessions. Quantification of total polyphenols, flavonoids and tannin revealed the highest percentage of occurrence of kaempferol (1.07-790.5 μg/g) and the lowest percentage of gallic acid (0.09-3.49 μg/g) in the seeds. Phytochemical analysis of the winged bean genotypes revealed that, some of the exotic lines are distinct. Analysis of photosynthesis rate, photosynthetic yield and stomatal conductance data also showed two clusters and was in congruence with the phytochemical affinities of the genotypes. The overall high level of polymorphism and varied range of genetic distances across the genotypes revealed a wide range of genetic base of P. tetragonolobus. The present investigation therefore, has provided significant insights for further improvement of winged bean germplasm for its qualitative and quantitative traits.

Share and Cite:

Mohanty, C. , Verma, S. , Singh, V. , Khan, S. , Gaur, P. , Gupta, P. , Nizar, M. , Dikshit, N. , Pattanayak, R. , Shukla, A. , Niranjan, A. , Sahu, N. , Behera, S. and Rana, T. (2013) Characterization of winged bean (Psophocarpus tetragonolobus (L.) DC.) based on molecular, chemical and physiological parameters. American Journal of Molecular Biology, 3, 187-197. doi: 10.4236/ajmb.2013.34025.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Peyachoknagul, S., Matsui, T., Shibata, H., Hara, S., Ikenaka, T., Okada, Y. and Ohno, T. (1989) Sequence and expression of the mRNA encoding the chymotrypsin inhibitor in winged bean (Psophocarpus tetragonolobus (L.) DC.). Plant Molecular Biology, 12, 51-58.
[2] Anon. (1981) The winged bean. A high-protein crop for the tropics. (2nd Edition) National Academy Press, Washington DC, 46.
[3] Khan, T.N. (1982) Winged bean production in the tropics. FAO Plant Production and Protection Paper, 38, 222.
[4] Kortt, A.A. (1980) Isolation and properties of a chymotrypsin inhibitor from winged bean seed (Psophocarpus tetragonolobus (L) DC.). Biochimica et Biophysica acta (BBA)-Protein structure, 624, 237-248.
[5] Kantha, S.S., Hettiarachchy, N.S. and Erdman, J.W.Jr. (1986) Nutrient, antinutrient contents and solubility profiles of nitrogen, phytic acid and selected minerals in winged bean flour. Cereal Chemistry, 63, 9-13.
[6] Cabrera, A. and Martin, A. (1986) Variation in tannin content in Vicia faba L. Journal of Agricultural Science, 106, 377-382.
[7] Sakiyama, N.S. (2000) DNA markers for coffee tree breeding. In: Sera, T., Soccol, C.R., Pandy, A. and Roussos S., Eds., Coffee Biotechnology and Quality, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, 179-185.
[8] Lazaroff, L. (1989) Strategy for development of a new crop. In: Wickens, G.E., Haq, N. and Day, P. Eds., New Crops for Food and Industry, Chapman and Hall, London, 108-119.
[9] Moussa, E.H., Millan, T., Gill, J. and Cubero, J.I. (1996) Variability and genome length estimation in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) revealed by RAPD analysis. Journal of Genetics & Breeding, 51, 83-85.
[10] Sant, V.J., Patankar, A.G., Sarode, N.D., Mhase, L.B., Sainani, M.N., Deshmukh, R.B., Ranjekar, P.K. and Gupta, V.S. (1999) Potential of DNA markers in detecting divergence and in analyzing heterosis in Indian elite chickpea cultivars. Theoretical and Applied Genetics, 98, 1217-1225.
[11] Collard, B.C.Y., Pang, E.C.K. and Taylor, P.W.J. (2003) Selection of wild Cicer accessions for the generation of mapping populations segregating for resistance to Ascochyta blight. Euphytica, 130, 1-9.
[12] Duran, Y., Fratini, R., Garcia, P. and Perez de la, V.M. (2004) An inter-subspecific genetic map of Lens. Theoretical and Applied Genetics, 108, 1265-1270.
[13] Edossa, F., Kassahun, T. and Endashaw, B. (2007) Genetic diversity and population structure of Ethiopian lentil (Lens culinaris Medikus) landraces as revealed by ISSR marker. African Journal of Biotechnology, 6, 1460-1468.
[14] Suvendu, M., Sutar, A.M. and Badigannavar, A.M. (2009) Assessment of Genetic diversity in cultivated groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) with differential responses to rust and late leaf spot using ISSR markers. Indian Journal of Genetics, 69, 219-224.
[15] Malviya, N. and Yadav, D. (2010) RAPD analysis among pigeon pea [Cajanus cajan (L.) Mill sp.] cultivars for their genetic diversity. Biomedical & Life Sciences, 3, 322-330.
[16] Pathak, R., Singh, S.K., Singh, M. and Henry, A. (2010) Molecular assessment of genetic diversity in cluster bean (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba) genotypes. Journal of Genetics, 89, 243-246.
[17] Tantasawat, P., Trongchuen, J., Prajongjai, T., Thongpae, T., Petkhum, C., Seehalak, W. and Machikowa, T. (2010) Variety identification and genetic relationships of mungbean and blackgram in Thailand based on morphological characters and ISSR analysis. African Journal of Biotechnology, 9, 4452-4464.
[18] Khan, MA., Von, Witzke-Ehbrecht S., Maass, BL. and Becker, HC., (2009) Relationships among different geographical groups, agro-morphology, fatty acid composition and RAPD marker diversity in safflower (Carthamus tinctorius). Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution, 56, 19-30.
[19] Basha, S.D., Francis, G., Makkar, H.S.P., Becker, K. and Sujatha, M. (2009) A comparative study of biochemical traits and molecular markers for assessment of genetic relationships between Jatropha curcas L. germplasm from different countries. Plant Science, 176, 812-823.
[20] Jaccard, P. (1908) Nouvelles rechers fur la distribution florale. Bulletin de la Société Vaudoise des Sciences Naturelles, 44, 223-270.
[21] Pavlicek, A., Hrda, S. and Flegr, J. (1999) Free tree free ware program for construction of phylogenetic trees on the basis of distance data and bootstrap/Jack Knife analysis of the tree robustness.Application in the RAPD analysis of genus Frenkelia. Folia Biologica, 45, 97-99.
[22] Powell, W., Morgante, M., Andre, C., Hanafey, M., Vogel, J., Tingey, S. and Rafalski, A. (1996) The comparison of RFLP, RAPD, AFLP and SSRP (microsatellite) markers for germplasm analysis. Molecular Breeding, 2, 225-238.
[23] Mantel, N. (1967) The detection of disease clustering and a generalized regression approach. Cancer Research, 27, 209-220.
[24] Rohlf, F.J. (2000) NTSYS-pc: Numerical taxonomy and multivariate analysis system, version 2.1. Exeter Software Setauket, New York.
[25] Ragazzi, E. and Veronese, G. (1973) Quantitative analysis of phenolics compounds after thin-layer chromatographic separation. Journal of Chromatography, 77, 369-375.
[26] Niranjan, A., Barthwal, J., Govindrajan, R., Singh, DP., Lehri, A. and Amla, DV. (2009) Development and validation of HPLC-UV-MS/MS method for identification and quantification of polyphenols in Artemisia pallens L. Acta Chromatographica, 21,105-116.
[27] Raina, S.N., Rani, V., Kojima, T., Ogihara, Y., Singh, K.P. and Devarumath, R.M. (2001) RAPD and ISSR fingerprints as useful genetic markers for analysis of genetic diversity, varietal identification, and phylogenetic relationships in peanut (Arachis hypogaea) cultivars and wild species. Genome, 44, 763-772.
[28] Nagaoka,T., and Ogihara, Y. (1997) Applicability of inter simple sequence repeat polymorphisms in wheat for use as DNA markers in comparison to RFLP and RAPD markers. Theoretical and Applied Genetics, 94, 597-602.
[29] Reddy, M.P., Sarla, N. and Siddiq, E.A. (2002) Inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) polymorphism and its application in plant breeding. Euphytica, 128, 9-17.
[30] Hagerman, A.E., Rice, M.E. and Ritchard, N.T. (1998) Mechanisms of protein precipitation for two tannins, pentagalloyl glucose and epicatechin16 (4→8) catechin (Procyanidin). Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 46, 2590-2595.

Copyright © 2024 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.