Effect of Climate Change on Transformers Loading Conditions in the Future Smart Grid Environment


The steady-state calculations are performed using IEC guidelines to determine the hot spot temperatures of distribution and power transformers in the worst projected Finnish environment due to long summer periods. Moreover, the effect of increase in winding resistance due to increase in ambient temperatures has been taken into account. The primary objective of the research is to investigate the possible extreme circumstances due to climate change. It is concluded that the power and distribution transformers should be progressively de-rated under such circumstances for their safe operations, which will not only prove cost-effective for utilities but also improve the reliability of the power supply to their valued customers in the challenging future smart grid environment.

Share and Cite:

M. Hashmi, M. Lehtonen and S. Hänninen, "Effect of Climate Change on Transformers Loading Conditions in the Future Smart Grid Environment," Open Journal of Applied Sciences, Vol. 3 No. 2B, 2013, pp. 24-29. doi: 10.4236/ojapps.2013.32B005.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] J. L. Kirtley, Jr., et al., “Monitoring the Health of Power Transformers,” IEEE Computer Applications in Power, 1996, pp. 18-23.
[2] O. Roizman and V. Davydov, “Neuro-Fuzzy Computing for Large Power Transformers Monitoring and Diagnostics,” 18th International Conference of the North American (Fuzzy Information Processing Society, 1999, pp. 248-252.
[3] V. Ohis and T. Czaszejko, “Techniques for Estimation of Hot Spot Temperature in Transfor-mers,” Australian Universities Power Engineering Conference (AUPEC02) , Melbourne, Australia, Sept-Oct, 2002.
[4] IEEE Std. C57.91-1995 “IEEE Guide for Loading Mineral-Oil-Immersed Transformers”.
[5] E. Simonson, “Transformer Ratings and Transformer Life,” IEE Colloquium on Transformer Life Management, London, UK, October 1998.
[6] IEC 354 1991-09 “Loading Guide for Oil-Immersed Power Transformers”.
[7] A. A. Elmoudi, “Evaluation of Power System Harmonic Effects on Transformers,” PhD dissertation at Helsinki University of Technology (TKK), Espoo, 2006.
[8] P. K. Sen, “Transformer Overloading,” International Journal of Power and Energy Systems, Vol. 19, No. 1, 1999, pp. 55-59.
[9] L. W. Pierce, “Predicting Liquid Filled Transformer Loading Capability,” IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, Vol. 33, No. 1, January 1994, pp. 170-178.
[10] L. W. Pierce, “An Investigation of the Thermal Performance of an Oil Filled Transformer Winding,” IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, Vol. 7, No. 3, July 1992, pp. 1347-1358.
[11] P. K. Sen and S. Pansuwan, “Overloading and Loss-of-Life Assessment Guidelines of Air-cooled Transformers,” Proceedings of Rural Electric Power Conference, Little Rock, AR, USA, April-May 2001.
[12] D. Harrison, “Loading capabilities of large power transformers,” Power Engineering Journal, October 1995, pp. 225-230.
[13] R. Chenier and J. Aubin, “Econimic Benifit and Risk Evaluation of Power Transformer Overloading,” IEEE Power Engineering Society Winter Meeting 2001, Columbus, USA, Vol. 2, 2001, pp. 459-462.
[14] A. Martikaine, “IImastonmuutoksen vaikutus sahkoverkkliiketoimintaan” VTT TIEDOTTEITA 2338, Espoo 2006.
[15] Teknisia Tietoja ja Taulukoita, TT

Copyright © 2024 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.