Effect of mango seed kernel extract on the adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and in rats fed a high fat diet


Mangoes (Mangifera indica L.) are one of the most important tropical foods. The seed is one of the main by-products of mango processing. Therefore, it is important to find an economically viable use for this waste (e.g., as a food additive or supplement with high nutraceutical value). We investigated the anti-obesity effects of mango seed kernel extract with hot water (MSKE-W) in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and in a high fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity rat model. MSKE-W caused a significant decrease in the activity of glycerol 2-phosphate dehydrogenase in 3T3-L1 adipocytes without eliciting cell cytotoxicity and inhibited cellular lipid accumulation through down-regulation of transcription factors such as PPARγ and C/EBPα. In the animal model, rats fed an HFD containing 1% MSKE-W gained less weight than rats fed an HFD alone. The visceral fat mass in rats fed an HFD containing 1% MSKE-W tended to be lower than that in rats fed an HFD alone. Furthermore, histological examination of rat livers from an HFD showed steatohepatitis. However, rats on an HFD containning 1% MSKE-W showed no histopathological changes in liver tissue. Our results indicate that MSKE-W influences anti-obesity effects, both in vitro and in vivo, and suggest that MSKE-W provides a novel preventive potential against obesity.

Share and Cite:

Kobayashi, M. , Matsui-Yuasa, I. , Fukuda-Shimizu, M. , Mandai, Y. , Tabuchi, M. , Munakata, H. and Kojima-Yuasa, A. (2013) Effect of mango seed kernel extract on the adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and in rats fed a high fat diet. Health, 5, 9-15. doi: 10.4236/health.2013.58A3002.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Kiess, W., Prezold, S., Topfer, M., et al. (2008) Adipocytes and adipose tissue. Best Practice & Research. Clinical Endocrinology Metabolism, 22, 135-153. doi:10.1016/j.beem.2007.10.002
[2] Shimomura, I., Funahashi, T., Takahashi, M., et al. (1996) Enhanced expression f PAI-1 in visceral fat: Possible contributor to vascular disease in obesity. Nature Medicine, 2, 800-803. doi:10.1038/nm0796-800
[3] Nawrocki, A.R. and Scherer, P.E. (2005) Keynote review: The adipocyte as Gdiscoverytarget. Drug Discovery Today, 10, 1219-1230. doi:10.1016/S1359-6446(05)03569-5
[4] Farmer, S.R. (2006) Transcriptional control of adipocytes formation. Cell Metabolism, 4, 263-273. doi:10.1016/j.cmet.2006.07.001
[5] Rosen, E.D. and MacDougald, O.A. (2006) Adipocyte differentiation from the inside out. Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology, 7, 885-896. doi:10.1038/nrm2066
[6] Berardin, N., Knodler, M., Schieber, A., et al. (2005) Utilization of mango peels as a source of pectin and polyphenolics. Innovative Food Science & Emerging Technologies, 6, 441-452.
[7] Maharram, Y. and Moustafa, A.M. (1982) Utilization of mango seed kernel (Magifera indica L.) as a source of oil. Food Chemistry, 8, 269-276. doi:10.1016/0308-8146(82)90029-2
[8] Berreto, J.C,, Trevisan, M.T.S., Hull, W.E., et al. (2008) Characterization and quantitation of polyphenolic compounds in bark, kernel, leaves, and peel of mango (Mangifera indica L.). Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 56, 5599-5610. doi:10.1021/jf800738r
[9] Nithitanakool, S., Pithayanukul, P. and Bavovada, R. (2009a) Antioxidant and hepatoprotective activities of Thai mango seed kernel extract. Plant Medica, 75, 1118-1123. doi:10.1055/s-0029-1185507
[10] Nithitanakool, S., Pithayanukul, P. and Bavovada, R. (2009b) Molecular docking studies and anti-tyrosinase activity of Thai mango seed kernel extract. Molecules, 14, 257-265. doi:10.3390/molecules14010257
[11] Leanpolchareanchai, J., Pithayanukul, P., Bovovada, R. and Saparpakorn, P. (2009) Molecular docking studies and anti-enzymatic activities of Thai mango seed kernel extract against snake venoms. Molecules, 14, 1404-1422. doi:10.3390/molecules14041404
[12] Pithayanukul, P., Leanpolchareanchai, J. and Saparpakorn, P. (2009) Molecular docking studies and anti-snake venom metalloproteinase activity of Thai mango seed kernel extract. Molecules, 14, 3198-3213. doi:10.3390/molecules14093198
[13] Riddell, R.J., Clothier, R.H. and Balls, M. (1986) An evaluation of three in vitro cytotoxicity assays. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 24, 467-471. doi:10.1016/0278-6915(86)90095-5
[14] Huang, X., Kojima-Yuasa, A., Norikura, T., et al. (2007) Mechanism of anti-cancer activity of Ziziphus jujube in HepG2 cells. The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, 35, 517-532. doi:10.1142/S0192415X0700503X
[15] Fotakis, G. and Timbrell, J.A. (2006) In vitro cytotoxicity assays: comparison of LDH, neutral red, MTT and protein assay in hepatoma cell lines following exposure to cadmium chloride. Toxicology Letters, 160, 171-177. doi:10.1016/j.toxlet.2005.07.001
[16] Ramirez-Zacarias, J.L., Castro-Monozledo, F. and KuriHarcuch, W. (1992) Quantitation of adipose conversion and triglycerides by staining intracytoplasmic lipids with oil red O. Histochemistry, 97, 493-497. doi:10.1007/BF00316069
[17] Wise, L.S. and Green, H. (1979) Participation of one isozyme of cytosolic glycerophosphate dehydrogenase in the adipose conversion of 3T3 cells. The Journal of Biological Chemistry, 254, 273-275.
[18] Sundaresan, S. Vijayagopal, P., Mills, N., et al. (2011) A mouse model for nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry, 22, 979-984. doi:10.1016/j.jnutbio.2010.08.011
[19] Lieber, C.S,, Leo, M.A., Mak, K.M., et al. (2004) Model of nonalcoholic steatihepatitis. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 79, 502-509.
[20] Matsusaka, Y. and Kawabata, J. (2010) Evaluation of antioxidant capacity of non-edible parts of some selected tropical fruits. Food Science and Technology Research, 16, 467-472. doi:10.3136/fstr.16.467
[21] Dorta, E., Lobo, M.G. and Gonzalez, M. (2012) Reutilization of mango byproducts: Study of the effect of extraction solvent and temperature on their antioxidant properties. Journal of Food Science, 77, C80-C88. doi:10.1111/j.1750-3841.2011.02477.x
[22] Masibo, M. and He, Q. (2009) Mango bioactive compounds and related nutraceutical properties. Food Reviews International, 25, 346-370. doi:10.1080/87559120903153524
[23] Lucas, E.A., Li, W.J., Peterson, S.K., Brown, A., et al. (2011) Mango modulates body fat and plasma glucose and lipids in mice fed a high-fat diet. The British Journal of Nutrition, 106, 1495-1505. doi:10.1017/S0007114511002066
[24] Pourahmad, J., Eskandari, M.R., Shakibaei, R. and Kamalinejad, M. (2010) A search for hepatoprotective activity of fruit extract of Mangifera indica L. against oxidative stress cytotoxicity. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition, 65, 83-89. doi:10.1007/s11130-010-0161-9
[25] Patsouris, D., Mandard, S., Voshol, P.J., et al. (2004) PPAR governs glycerol metabolism. The Journal of Clinical Investgation, 114, 94-103.

Copyright © 2024 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.