Effects Residence Time to Water Quality in Large Water Distribution Systems


Systems that have big transmission line may have problem on changes of pressure in the distribution system. Because the increase in water age is dependent on the difference between the production and consumption rates, high residence time in pipes and storage duration in water tanks. The goal of this study is to analyze the effects residence time to water quality in large water distribution systems. According to the results in Ahwaz, bacterial growth (HPC) has a direct relationship with water age, and changing rate of the bacterial growth (HPC) and the distance travelled and residence time have been caused to increase water age, bacterial growth (HPC), chlorine consumption and hydraulic change. So bacterial growth (HPC) doesn’t have any relationship with THMs and Tol Coli form, but has a reversed relationship with residual chlorine nearly.

Share and Cite:

H. Shamsaei, O. Jaafar and N. Basri, "Effects Residence Time to Water Quality in Large Water Distribution Systems," Engineering, Vol. 5 No. 4, 2013, pp. 449-457. doi: 10.4236/eng.2013.54054.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] EPA, “Health Risks from Microbial Growth and Biofilms in Drinking Water Distribution Systems,” Office of Water (4601M) Office of Ground Water and Drinking Water Distribution System White Paper 3-10, US Environmental Protection Agency, 2002.
[2] M. J. Lehtola, et al., “The Effects of Changing Water Flow Velocity on the Formation of Biofilms and Water Quality in Pilot Distribution System Consisting of Copper or Polyethylene Pipes,” Water Research, Vol. 40, No. 11, 2006, pp. 2151-2160. doi:10.1016/j.watres.2006.04.010
[3] J. Castorina and V. Jegatheesan, “Corrosion Impact on Drinking Water Distribution Systems: A Review and Future Research Direction,” Proceedings of the 1st Young Water Professionals, 2012.
[4] Research, U.S.E.P.A.O.o., “Control of Biofilm Growth in Drinking Water Distribution Systems,” Office of Research and Development, 1992.
[5] M. Lehtola, “Microbially Available Phosphorus in Drinking Water,” National Public Health Institute, 2002.
[6] J. T. O’Connor and T. O’Connor, “Water Quality Deterioration in Distribution Systems,” ASCE, 2000.
[7] K. Gotoh, “Residual Chlorine Concentration Decreasing Rate Coefficients for Various Pipe Materials,” Water Supply, Vol. 7, No. 2-3, 1988, pp. 17-18.
[8] W. Sharp, P. J. and M. Morgan, “In-Situ Chlorine Decay Rate Testing,” Proceedings of Water quality Modeling in Distribution Systems, Cincinnati, 1991, pp. 225-236
[9] W. Lu, L. Kiéné and Y. Lévi, “Chlorine Demand of Biofilms in Water Distribution Systems,” Water Research, Vol. 33, No. 3, 1999, pp. 827-835. doi:10.1016/S0043-1354(98)00229-2
[10] L. Kiéné, W. Lu and Y. Levi, “Relative Importance of Phenomena Responsible of the Chlorine Consumption in Drinking Water Distribution Systems,” Proceedings of WQTC AWWA, 1996.
[11] A. J. Whelton, et al., “Minerals in Drinking Water: Impacts on Taste and Importance to Consumer Health,” Water Science & Technology, Vol. 55, No. 5, 2007, pp. 283291. doi:10.2166/wst.2007.190
[12] De Boer and E. Delvin, “Fate of Disinfectants and Disinfection By-Products in Water Distribution Systems,” Report for 2005SD38B, South Dakota State University, 2006, pp. 3-8.
[13] A. Al-Jasser, “Chlorine Decay in Drinking-Water Transmission and Distribution Systems: Pipe Service Age Effect,” Water Research, Vol. 41, No. 2, 2007, pp. 387-396. doi:10.1016/j.watres.2006.08.032
[14] F. J. Bove, et al., “Public Drinking Water Contamination and Birth Outcomes,” American Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 141, No. 9, 1995, pp. 850-862.
[15] K. P. Cantor, et al., “Drinking Water Source and Chlorination Byproducts I. Risk of Bladder Cancer,” Epidemiology, Vol. 9, No. 1, 1998, pp. 21-28. doi:10.1097/00001648-199801000-00007
[16] J. W. A. Charrois and S. E. Hrudey, “Breakpoint Chlorination and Free-Chlorine Contact Time: Implications for Drinking Water N-Nitrosodimethylamine Concentrations,” Water Research, Vol. 41, No. 3, 2007, pp. 674-682. doi:10.1016/j.watres.2006.07.031
[17] B. A. J. Kallén and E. Robert, “Drinking Water Chlorination and Delivery Outcome—A Registry-Based Study in Sweden,” Reproductive Toxicology, Vol. 14, No. 4, 2000, pp. 303-309. doi:10.1016/S0890-6238(00)00086-1
[18] Christovam, Barcellos, Kátia Coutinho Barbos, Maria de Fátima Pina,. Monica MAF, Magalhaes.& Júlio CMD Paola. “Health Risk Analysis of the Rio de Janeiro Water Suly Using Geographical Information Systems,” Dept. of Health Information, Fundacao Oswaldo Cruz (Dis/Cict/ Fiocru, 2002.
[19] A. Kerneis, et al., “The Effects of Water Residence Time on the Biological Quality in a Distribution Network,” Water Research, Vol. 29, No. 7, 1995, pp. 1719-1727. doi:10.1016/0043-1354(94)00323-Y
[20] S. Srinivasan, et al., “Factors Affecting Bulk to Total Bacteria Ratio in Drinking Water Distribution Systems,” Water Research, Vol. 42, No. 13, 2008, pp. 3393-3404. doi:10.1016/j.watres.2008.04.025
[21] EPA “Effects of Water Age on Distribution System Water Quality,” Office of Water (4601M) Office of Ground Water and Drinking Water Distribution System Issue Paper, US Environmental Protection Agency, 2004, pp. 1-9.
[22] Buligame,Gary,.Camper,Anne,.Kirmeyer,Gregory,. LeChevallier, Mark,.Parekh,Pankaj,. Smith, Charlotte, & Associates. “Distribution System Water Quality Strategic Imitative Plan,” AWWA Research Foundation, Denver, 2007.
[23] E. Delahaye, B. Welté, Y. Levi, G. Leblon and A. Montiel, “An ATP-Based Method for Monitoring the Microbiological Drinking Water Quality in a Distribution Network,” Water Research, Vol. 37, No. 15, 2003, pp. 36893696. doi:10.1016/S0043-1354(03)00288-4
[24] T. L. O. Connor and J. T. O. Connor, “Water Quality Deterioration in Distribution Systems. Part 2: Microbial Processes in Distribution Mains,” 1999.
[25] S. Ndiongue, P. Huck and R. Slawson, “Effects of Temperature and Biodegradable Organic Matter on Control of Biofilms by Free Chlorine in a Model Drinking Water Distribution System,” Water Research, Vol. 39, No. 6, 2005, pp. 953-964. doi:10.1016/j.watres.2004.12.019
[26] H. Tung and Y. F. Xie, “Association between Haloacetic Acid Degradation and Heterotrophic Bacteria in Water Distribution Systems,” Water Research, Vol. 43, No. 4, 2009, pp. 971-978.

Copyright © 2024 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.