Traffic-Distributed Clustering Scheme for Cluster-Based WSNs with Various Non-Uniform Traffic Fluctuations


In wireless sensor networks (WSNs), it is essential to save energy consumption at sensor nodes (SNs). A clustering technique is one of the approaches to save energy consumption, where several neighboring SNs form a cluster and transmit the sensed data to their cluster head (CH), and then the CH sends the aggregated data to a sink node. Under spatial non-uniform traffic environments, the clustering technique causes the non-uniformity in data gathering performance and energy consumption between clusters in WSNs. In this paper, we propose a clustering scheme for the WSNs employing IEEE802.15.4 beacon enabled mode under various non-uniform traffic environments. The proposed scheme distributes network traffic uniformly to the clusters through cluster area control by adjusting beacon transmission power, and thereby achieves uniform and improved data gathering performance. In the clusters with expanded area, however, the performance degradation arises from long distance communications. To solve this problem, the proposed scheme controls transmission power at SNs. In addition, to reduce energy consumption the proposed scheme sets the appropriate active period length in duty cycle operation to the current traffic condition. The performance evaluations by computer simulation show the effectiveness of the proposed scheme for the WSNs under various non-uniform traffic environments.

Share and Cite:

R. Mizitani, K. Mori, K. Naito and H. Kobayashi, "Traffic-Distributed Clustering Scheme for Cluster-Based WSNs with Various Non-Uniform Traffic Fluctuations," International Journal of Communications, Network and System Sciences, Vol. 6 No. 2, 2013, pp. 109-118. doi: 10.4236/ijcns.2013.62013.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] S. Lindsey, C. Raghavendra and K. Sivalingam, “Data Gathering Algorithms in Sensor Networks Using Energy Metrics,” IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems, Vol. 13, No. 9, 2002, pp. 924-935. doi:10.1109/TPDS.2002.1036066
[2] V. Loscri, G. Morabito and S. Marano, “A Two-Levels Hierarchy for Low-Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy (TL-LEACH),” Proceedings of IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference, Dallas, 25-28 September 2005, pp. 1809-1813.
[3] L. Sungil and L. Jaesung, “Hybrid Cluster Mesh Scheme for Energy Efficient Wireless Sensor Networks,” IEICE Transactions on Communication, Vol. E91-B, No. 8, 2008, pp. 2610-2617.
[4] W. R. Heinzelman, A. P. Chandrakasan and H. Balakrishnan, “An Application-Specific Protocol Architecture for Wireless Microsensor Networks,” IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communication, Vol. 1, No. 4, 2002, pp. 660-670. doi:10.1109/TWC.2002.804190.
[5] O. Younis and S. Fahmy, “Distributed Clustering in Ad-Hoc Sensor Netoworks: A Hybrid, Energy-Efficient Approach,” Proceedings of IEEE Computer and Communications Societies, 7-11 March 2004.
[6] P. Lin, C. Qiao and X. Wang, “Medium Access Control with a Dynamic Duty Cycle for Sensor Networks,” Proceedings of IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference, Atlanta, 21-25 March 2004, Vol. 3, pp. 1534-1539.
[7] M. Neugebauer, J. Ploennigs and K. Kabitzsch, “Duty Cycle Adaptation with Respect to Traffic,” Proceedings of Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation, Catania, 19-22 September 2005, pp. 8-432.
[8] Y. Kwon, et al., “Traffic Adaptive IEEE802.15.4 MAC for Wireless Sensor Networks,” IFIP International Conference on Embedded and Ubiquitous Computing, Seoul, August 2006, pp. 864-873.
[9] IEEE802.15.4, Part15.4 Wireless MAC and PHY Specifications for Low-Rate WPANs, 2006.
[10] P. Bahl, M. T. Hajiaghayi, K. Jain, V. Mirrokni, L. Qiu and A. Saberi, “Cell Breathing in Wireless LANs: Algorithms and Evaluation,” IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing, Vol. 6, No. 2, 2007, pp. 167-178. doi:10.1109/TMC.2007.20
[11] M. Arzamendia, K. Mori, K. Naito and H. Kobayashi, “Traffic Adaptive MAC Mechanism for IEEE 802.15.4 Cluster Based Wireless Sensor Networks with Various Traffic Non-Uniformities,” IEICE Transactions on Communication, Vol. E93-B, No. 11, 2010, pp. 3035-3047.
[12] Texas Instruments, “CC2420 RF Transceiver Datasheet,” 2007.

Copyright © 2024 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.