Menopausal Status and Metabolic Syndrome in Women in Climacteric Period Treated at a Clinic in Southern Brazil


Background: This study aims to understand the relationship between menopausal status and the presence of Metabolic Syndrome in women from 40 to 65 years, as well as to describe the distribution of each component of Metabolic Syn- drome according to sample characteristics. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted with 551 women treated at a clinic in southern Brazil. MetS and its components were defined according to NCEP-ATP III and menopausal status as pre, peri, and post-menopause. Prevalences of menopausal status and of MetS and its components were calculated. Estimates of prevalence ratios crude and adjusted with confidence intervals of 95% were calculated by Poisson Regression with robust variance. Demographic, socioeconomic, behavioral, and reproductive characteristics were considered as potential confounding factors in multivariable models based on a conceptual framework of MetS determination. Results: The prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome in the sample was 56.1% (CI95%: 51.9 to 60.2), being more common among older women (56 to 65 years), with low education, menarche < 11 years old, with three or more pregnancies and in the post-menopausal period. In multivariate analysis, there was an increase of prevalence ratios when comparing perimenopause and post-menopause with pre-menopause; however, the confidence intervals include the unit. Regarding the analysis of isolated components in the sample, the most prevalent altered components were: hypertension (84.8%; CI95%: 81.7 to 87.8), waist circumference (66.4%; CI95%: 62.5 to 70.4) and HDL cholesterol (51.7%; CI95%: 47.5 to 55.9). There was a linear increase on mean blood glucose through menopausal status. Conclusions: Our study indicates variation on the distribution of MetS and each component according to menopausal status and other women characteristics. Future studies on MetS should also have foresight to use this type of approach to improve understanding and targeting of actions and programs focusing on women in this period of life.

Share and Cite:

K. Giane Mendes, H. Theodoro, A. D. Rodrigues, F. Busnello, D. Roberto S. de Lorenzi and M. Teresa A. Olinto, "Menopausal Status and Metabolic Syndrome in Women in Climacteric Period Treated at a Clinic in Southern Brazil," Open Journal of Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases, Vol. 3 No. 1, 2013, pp. 31-41. doi: 10.4236/ojemd.2013.31005.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] WHO, “Research on the Menopause,” Geneva, 1981.
[2] WHO, “Research on the menopause in the 1990,” Geneva, 1996.
[3] “Executive Summary of the Third Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program, NCEP) Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults (Adult Treatment Panel III),” JAMA, Vol. 285, No. 19, 2001, pp. 2486-2497. doi:10.1001/jama.285.19.2486
[4] E. S. Ford, W. H. Giles and W. H. Dietz, “Prevalence of the Metabolic Syndrome among US Adults: Findings from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey,” JAMA, Vol. 287, No. 3, 2002, pp. 356-359. doi:10.1001/jama.287.3.356
[5] J. B. Meigs, P. W. Wilson, D. M. Nathan, R. B. Sr. D’Agostino, K. Williams and S. M. Haffner, “Prevalence and Characteristics of the Metabolic Syndrome in the San Antonio Heart and Framingham Offspring Studies,” Diabetes, Vol. 52, No. 8, 2003, pp. 2160-2167. doi:10.2337/diabetes.52.8.2160
[6] M. A. Nakazone, A. Pinheiro, M. C. Braile, M. A. Pinhel, G. F. de Sousa, S. Pinheiro Jr., et al., “Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome Using NCEP-ATPIII and IDF Definitions in Brazilian Individuals,” Revista Da Associacao Medica Brasileira, Vol. 53, No. 5, 2007, pp. 407-413. doi:10.1590/S0104-42302007000500016c
[7] L. B. Salaroli, G. C. Barbosa, J. G. Mill and M. C. B. Molina, “Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome in Population-Based Study, Vitoria, ES—Brazil,” Brazilian Archives of Endocrinology & Metabolism, Vol. 51, No. 7, 2007, pp. 1143-1152. doi:10.1590/S0004-27302007000700018
[8] J. A. F. Neto, E. D. Figueredo, J. B. Barbosa, F. B. Fde, G. R. Costa, V. J. Nina, et al., “Metabolic Syndrome and Menopause: Cross-Sectional Study in Gynecology Clinic,” Brazilian Archives of Cardiology, Vol. 95, No. 3, 2010, pp. 339-345. doi:10.1590/S0066-782X2010005000094
[9] H. M. Kim, J. Park, S. Y. Ryu and J. Kim, “The Effect of Menopause on the Metabolic Syndrome among Korean Women: The Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2001,” Diabetes Care, Vol. 30, No. 3, 2007, pp. 701-706. doi:10.2337/dc06-1400
[10] I. Janssen, L. H. Powell, S. Crawford, B. Lasley and K. Sutton-Tyrrell, “Menopause and the Metabolic Syndrome: The Study of Women’s Health across the Nation,” Archives of Internal Medicine, Vol. 168, No. 14, 2008, pp. 1568-1575. doi:10.1001/archinte.168.14.1568
[11] R. Eshtiaghi, A. Esteghamati and M. Nakhjavani, “Menopause is an Independent Predictor of Metabolic Syndrome in Iranian women,” Maturitas, Vol. 65, No. 3, 2010, pp. 262-266. doi:10.1016/j.maturitas.2009.11.004
[12] G. J. Cho, H. T. Park, J. H. Shin, T. Kim, J. Y. Hur, Y. T. Kim, et al., “The Relationship between Reproductive Factors and Metabolic Syndrome in Korean Post-Menopausal Women: Korea National Health and Nutrition Survey 2005,” Menopause, Vol. 16, No. 5, 2009, pp. 998-1003. doi:10.1097/gme.0b013e3181559860
[13] F. Azizi and E. Ainy, “Coronary Heart Disease Risk Factors and Menopause: A Study in 1980 Tehranian Women, the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study,” Climacteric, Vol. 6, No. 4, 2003, pp. 330-336. doi:10.1080/cmt.6.4.330.336
[14] K. A. Matthews, S. L. Crawford, C. U. Chae, S. A. Everson-Rose, M. F. Sowers, B. Sternfeld, et al., “Are Changes in Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in Midlife Women Due to Chronological Aging or to the Menopausal Transition?” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, Vol. 54, No. 25, 2009, pp. 2366-2373. doi:10.1016/j.jacc.2009.10.009
[15] A. Ghosh, “Comparison of Risk Variables Associated with the Metabolic Syndrome in Pre- and Post-Menopausal Bengalee Women,” Cardiovascular Journal of Africa, Vol. 19, No. 4, 2008, pp. 183-187.
[16] L. Sieminska, C. Wojciechowska, W. Foltyn, D. Kajdaniuk, B. Kos-Kudla, B. Marek, et al., “The Relation of Serum Adiponectin and Leptin Levels to Metabolic Syndrome in Women before and after the Menopause,” Polish Journal of Endocrinology, Vol. 57, No. 1, 2006, pp. 15-22.
[17] W. Y. Lin, W. S. Yang, L. T. Lee, C. Y. Chen, C. S. Liu, C. C. Lin, et al., “Insulin Resistance, Obesity, and Metabolic Syndrome among Non-Diabetic Pre- and Post- Menopausal Women in North Taiwan,” International Journal of Obesity, Vol. 30, No. 6, 2006, pp. 912-917. doi:10.1038/sj.ijo.0803240
[18] E. Ainy, P. Mirmiran, S. Zahedi Asl and F. Azizi, “Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome during Menopausal Transition Tehranian Women: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study (TLGS),” Maturitas, Vol. 58, No. 2, 2007, pp. 150-155. doi:10.1016/j.maturitas.2007.07.002
[19] Y. Feng, X. Hong, E. Wilker, Z. Li, W. Zhang, D. Jin, et al., “Effects of Age at Menarche, Reproductive Years, and Menopause on Metabolic Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Diseases,” Atherosclerosis, Vol. 196, No. 2, 2008, pp. 590-597. doi:10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2007.06.016
[20] P. Henneman, A. C. Janssens, M. C. Zillikens, M. Frolich, R. R. Frants, B. A. Oostra, et al., “Menopause Impacts the Relation of Plasma Adiponectin Levels with the Metabolic Syndrome,” Journal of Internal Medicine, Vol. 267, No. 4, 2010, pp. 402-409. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2796.2009.02162.x
[21] P. Marques-Vidal, M. Bochud, V. Mooser, F. Paccaud, G. Waeber and P. Vollenweider, “Prevalence of Obesity and Abdominal Obesity in the Lausanne Population,” BMC Public Health, Vol. 8, No. 330, 2008, p. 330. doi:10.1186/1471-2458-8-330
[22] WHO, “Obesity: Preventing, and Managing the Global Epidemic,” Geneva, 1998.
[23] P. Palatini, F. Dorigatti, E. Bonso and F. Ragazzo, “Validation of Microlife BP W100 Wrist Device Assessed according to the European Society of Hypertension and the British Hypertension Society Protocols,” Blood Pressure Monitoring, Vol. 14, No. 1, 2009, pp. 41-44. doi:10.1097/MBP.0b013e32831e30d2
[24] C. G. Victora, S. R. Huttly, S. C. Fuchs and M. T. Olinto, “The Role of Conceptual Frameworks in Epidemiological Analysis: A Hierarchical Approach,” International Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 26, No. 1, 1997, pp. 224-227. doi:10.1093/ije/26.1.224
[25] E. P. S. M. Oliveira and M. D. A. Lima, “Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome in a Semi-arid Rural Area in Bahia,” Brazilian Archives of Endocrinology & Metabolism, Vol. 50, No. 3, 2006, pp. 456-465. doi:10.1590/S0004-27302006000300008
[26] J. L. Rigo, R. R. Lacorte, J. L. Vieira and C. L. Reichert, “Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome in an Elderly Community: Comparison between Three Diagnostic Methods,” Brazilian Archives of Cardiology, Vol. 93, No. 2, 2009, pp. 85-91. doi:10.1590/S0066-782X2009000800004
[27] V. R. Mesch, L. E. Boero, N. O. Siseles, M. Royer, M. Prada, F. Sayegh, et al., “Metabolic Syndrome throughout the Menopausal Transition: Influence of Age and Menopausal Status,” Climacteric, Vol. 9, No. 1, 2006, pp. 40-48. doi:10.1080/13697130500487331
[28] A. M. Miller, J. Wilbur, P. J. Chandler and O. Sorokin, “Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors and Menopausal Status in Midlife Women from the Former Soviet Union,” Women Health, Vol. 38, No. 3, 2003, pp. 19-36. doi:10.1300/J013v38n03_03
[29] I. Janssen, L. H. Powell, R. Kazlauskaite and S. A. Dugan, “Testosterone and Visceral Fat in Midlife Women: The Study of Women’s Health across the Nation (SWAN) Fat Patterning Study,” Obesity, Vol. 18, No. 3, 2010, pp. 604-610. doi:10.1038/oby.2009.251
[30] H. S. Kok, K. M. van Asselt, Y. T. van der Schouw, I. van der Tweel, P. H. Peeters, P. W. Wilson, et al., “Heart Disease Risk Determines Menopausal Age rather than the Reverse,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, Vol. 47, No. 10, 2006, pp. 1976-1983. doi:10.1016/j.jacc.2005.12.066
[31] J. Romaguera, A. P. Ortiz, F. J. Roca, G. Colon and E. Suarez, “Factors Associated with Metabolic Syndrome in a Sample of Women in Puerto Rico,” Menopause, Vol. 17, No. 2, 2010, pp. 388-392. doi:10.1097/gme.0b013e3181bd5393
[32] E. Mousavi, M. Gharipour, A. Tavassoli, G. H. Sadri and N. Sarrafzadegan, “Multiparity and Risk of Metabolic Syndrome: Isfahan Healthy Heart Program,” Metabolic Syndrome and Related Disorders, Vol. 7, No. 6, 2007, pp. 519-524. doi:10.1089/met.2008.0076
[33] M. Heys, C. M. Schooling, C. Jiang, B. J. Cowling, X. Lao, W. Zhang, et al., “Age of Menarche and the Metabolic Syndrome in China,” Epidemiology, Vol. 18, No. 6, 2007, pp. 740-746. doi:10.1097/EDE.0b013e3181567faf
[34] V. M. Silveira, B. L. Horta, D. P. Gigante and M. R. Azevedo Junior, “Metabolic Syndrome in the 1982 Pelotas Cohort: Effect of contemporary Lifestyle and Socioeconomic Status,” Brazilian Archives of Endocrinology & Metabolism, Vol. 54, No. 4, 2010, pp. 390-397. doi:10.1590/S0004-27302010000400008
[35] F. Sarno and C. A. Monteiro, “Relative Importance of Body Mass Index and Waist Circumference for Hypertension in Adults,” Journal of Public Health, Vol. 41, No. 5, 2007, pp. 788-796. doi:10.1590/S0034-89102007000500013
[36] IBGE, “Research Budgets Family 2008-2009: Food Consumption Analysis Staff in Brazil,” Rio de Janeiro, 2011.

Copyright © 2023 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.