Dielectric and Optical Characterization of Boron Doped Ammonium Dihydrogen Phosphate


Single crystals of pure and boron doped ammonium dihydrogen phosphate were grown from aqueous solution by slow solvent evaporation process. ICP studies were done to confirm the presence of the dopant boron in the parent crystal. The values of the lattice parameters were determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction. The pure and doped ADP crystals were found to have tetragonal structure. Complete optical characterizations of the crystals were done using the FTIR, UV-Vis and NLO studies. The presences of the various functional groups in the crystals were identified by FTIR spectrum. The band gap energies of the pure and doped crystals have been calculated at their cut off frequencies using the UV-Vis spectrum. The second harmonic generation efficiency of the crystals was determined. The electric properties of the grown crystal have been analyzed by studying the variation of dielectric constant and dielectric loss with frequency.

Share and Cite:

D. Zion, S. Devarajan and T. Arunachalam, "Dielectric and Optical Characterization of Boron Doped Ammonium Dihydrogen Phosphate," Journal of Crystallization Process and Technology, Vol. 3 No. 1, 2013, pp. 5-11. doi: 10.4236/jcpt.2013.31002.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] D. Xu and D. Xue, “Chemical Bond Simulation of KADP Single-Crystal Growth,” Journal of Crystal Growth, Vol. 310, No. 7-9, 2008, pp. 1385-1390. doi:10.1016/j.jcrysgro.2007.12.008
[2] R. J. Davey and J. W. Mullin, “Growth of the {100} Faces of Ammonium Dihydrogen Phosphate Crystals in the Presence of Ionic Species,” Journal of Crystal Growth, Vol. 26, 1974, p. 45.
[3] K. Sethuraman, R. R. Babu, R. Gopalakrishnan and P. Ramasamy, “Unidirectional Growth of (1 1 0) Ammonium Dihydrogen Orthophosphate Single Crystal by Sankaranarayanan-Ramasamy Method,” Journal of Crystal Growth, Vol. 294, No. 2, 2006, pp. 349-352. doi:10.1016/j.jcrysgro.2006.06.033
[4] S. Nagalingam, S. Vasudevan and P. Ramasamy, “Effect of Impurities on the Nucleation of ADP from Aqueous Solution,” Crystal Research and Technology, Vol. 16, No. 6, 1981, p. 647-650.
[5] R. Ramesh and C. Mahadevan, “Nucleation Studies in Supersaturated Aqueous Solutions of (NH4)H2PO4 Doped with (NH4)2C2O4?H2O,” Bulletin of Materials Science, Vol. 21, No. 4, 1998, pp. 287-290. doi:10.1007/BF02744954
[6] M. E. Lines and A. M. Glass, “Principles and Applications of Ferroelectrics and Related Materials,” Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1977.
[7] N. P. Rajesh, K. Meera, K. Srinivasan, S. Ragavan and P. Ramasamy, “Effect of EDTA on the Metastable Zone width of ADP,” Journal of Crystal Growth, Vol. 213, No. 3-4, 2003, pp. 389-394. doi:10.1016/S0022-0248(00)00374-2
[8] K. Srinivasan, P. Ramasamy, A. Cantoni and G. Bocelli, “Mixed Crystals of NH4H2PO4-KH2PO4: Compositional Dependence of Morphology, Microhardness and Optical Transmittance,” Materials Science and Engineering: B, Vol. 52, No. 2-3, 1998, pp. 129-133. doi:10.1016/S0921-5107(97)00286-9
[9] M. Yoshimatsu, “Some Observations of Imperfections in ADP Single Crystals by X-Ray Diffraction Micrography,” Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 5, 1966, pp. 29-35. doi:10.1143/JJAP.5.29
[10] R. Reintjes and E. C. Eckardt, “Evaporated Inhomogeneous Thin Films,” Applied Optics, Vol. 5, No. 1, 1966, pp. 29-34. doi:10.1364/AO.5.000029
[11] P. Kumaresan, S. M. Babu and P. M. Anbasan, “Thermal, Dielectric Studies on Pure and Amino Acid (l-Glutamic Acid, l-Histidine, l-Valine) Doped KDP Single Crystals,” Optical Materials, Vol. 30, No. 9, 2008, pp. 1361-1368. doi:10.1016/j.optmat.2007.07.002
[12] P. Rajesh and P. Ramasamy, “Growth of DL-Malic Acid-Doped Ammonium Dihydrogen Phosphate Crystal and Its Characterization,” Journal of Crystal Growth, Vol. 311, No. 13, 2009, pp. 3491-3497. doi:10.1016/j.jcrysgro.2009.04.020
[13] J. Podder, “The Study of Impurities Effect on the Growth and Nucleation Kinetics of Potassium Dihydrogen Phosphate,” Journal of Crystal Growth, Vol. 237-239, No. 1, 2002, pp. 70-75. doi:10.1016/S0022-0248(01)01854-1
[14] P. V. Dhanaraj, G. Bhagavanarayana and N. P. Rajesh, “Effect of Amino Acid Additives on Crystal Growth Parameters and Properties of Ammonium Dihydrogen Orthophosphate Crystals,” Materials Chemistry and Physics, Vol. 112, No. 2, 2008, pp. 490-495.
[15] T. Ananthi, S. M. Delphine, M. M. Freeda, R. K. Priya and A. Wahabmusallam, “Growth and Characterization of Doped ADP Crystal,” Recent Research in Science and Technology, Vol. 3, No. 1, 2011, pp. 32-40.
[16] Z. Delci, D. Shyamala, S. Karuna, A. Senthil and A. Thayumanavan, “Enhancement of Optical, Thermal and Hardness in KDP Crystals by Boron Doping,” International Journal of ChemTech Research, Vol. 4, No. 2, 2012, pp. 816-826.
[17] S. Boomadevi, H. P. Mittal and R. Dhansekaran, “Synthesis, Crystal Growth and Characterization of 3-Methyl 4-Nitropyridine 1-Oxide (POM) Single Crystals,” Journal of Crystal Growth, Vol. 261, No. 1, 2004, pp. 55-62. doi:10.1016/j.jcrysgro.2003.09.005
[18] B. T. Hatton, K. Landskron, W. J. Hunks, et al., “Materials Chemistry for Low-K Materials,” Materials Today, Vol. 9, No. 3, 2006, pp. 22-31. doi:10.1016/S1369-7021(06)71387-6
[19] S. Goma, C. M. Padma and C. K. Mahadevan, “Dielectric Parameters of KDP Single Crystals Added with Urea,” Materials Letters, Vol. 60, No. 29-30, 2006, pp. 3701-3705. doi:10.1016/j.matlet.2006.03.092
[20] S. Suresh, A. Ramanand, D. Jayaraman and P. Mani, “Growth, Photoconductivity and Dielectric Properties of Triglycine Sulfate (TGS) Single Crystals,” Optoelectronics and Advanced Materials, Vol. 4, No. 11, 2010, pp. 1763-1765.
[21] C. Balarew and R. Duhlew, “Application of the Hard and Soft Acids and Bases Concept to Explain to Ligand Coordination in Double Salt Structures,” Journal of Solid State Chemistry, Vol. 55, No. 1, 1984, pp. 1-6. doi:10.1016/0022-4596(84)90240-8
[22] M. Meena and C. K. Mahadevan, “Growth and Electrical Characterization of L-Arginine Added KDP and ADP Single Crystals,” Crystal Research and Technology, Vol. 43, No. 2, 2008, pp. 166-172. doi:10.1002/crat.200711064
[23] S. Aruna, G. Bhagavannarayana, M. Palanisamy, P. C. Thomas, B. Varghese and P. Sagayaraj, “Growth, Morphological, Mechanical and Dielectric Studies of Semi Organic NLO Single Crystal: l-Argininium Perchlorate,” Journal of Crystal Growth, Vol. 300, No. 2, 2007, pp. 403-408. doi:10.1016/j.jcrysgro.2006.11.296
[24] N. Pattanaboonmee, P. Ramasamy, R. Yimnirun and P. Manyum, “A Comparative Study on Pure, l-Arginine and Glycine Doped Ammonium Dihydrogen Orthophosphate Single Crystals Grown by Slow Solvent Evaporation and Temperature Gradient Method,” Journal of Crystal Growth, Vol. 314, No. 1, 2010, pp. 196-201.

Copyright © 2024 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.