Effect of External Carbon Source and Bed Turnover Rate on Denitrificaion


This study investigated the effect of external carbon source and bed turnover rate on biological denitrification in the pilot-scale IPNR (Ilshin Phosphorus and Nitrate Removal) process. IPNR process is an up-flow reactor filled with Si-media which removes phosphorus physically and nitrate nitrogen biologically using secondary effluent from sewage treatment plant. Phosphorus (PO4-P) was removed using HFO (Hydrous ferric oxide) by adsorption as well as nitrate nitrogen (NO3-N) was transformed to nitrogen gas (N2) by denitrifying bacteria using external carbon source in the same reactor. Methanol was used as an external carbon source for denitrification with various dosing concentration and Si-media bed turnover rate was varied from 6.4 ~ 7.75 day-1. The concentrations of PO4-P and NO3-N in the secondary effluent were from 0.1 to 1.75 mg/L and from 1.1 to 31.9 mg/L, respectively. The results demonstrated that high amount of NO3-N removed from 31.9 to 1.2 mg/L, at the same time PO4-P removed from 1.75 to 0.41mg/L using secondary effluent. Denitrification was found more stable with 6.4 bed turnover/day and 130% over dosing of theoretical methanol dose for denitrification.

Share and Cite:

Song, J. , Kim, Y. and Yoo, N. (2012) Effect of External Carbon Source and Bed Turnover Rate on Denitrificaion. Creative Education, 3, 17-20. doi: 10.4236/ce.2012.37B004.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] U.S. E.P.A, “Water quality criteria research of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency”, Proceings of an EPA sponsored symposium, EPA-600/3-76-079, 1976.
[2] Forsberg, C. & S. O. Ryding, “Eutrophication paramters and trophic state indices in 30 Swedish waste-receiving lakes”, Arch. Hydrobiol., vol. 89, pp. 189~207, 1980.
[3] Water Environment Federation, Nutrient Removal, Chapter 7. Chemical phosphorus removal, 2010.
[4] WEF and ASCE, “Design of municipal wastewater treatment plants-WEF manual of practice 8 and ASCE manuals and reports on engineeing practice No. 76, 5th Ed. Water Environment Feferation and Americal Society of Civil Engineers Environment & Water Resources Institute, 2009
[5] Francisco J. Cervantes, Spysros G. Pavlostathis and Adrianus C. van Haandel, Advanced biological treatment processes for industrial wastewaters, 2006.
[6] Tchobanoglous, G., F.L. Burton, and H.D. Stensel, wastewater engineeing: Treatment and reuse, 2003.
[7] Gilda Carvalho, Paulo c. Lemos, Adrian Oehmen, Maria A.M. Reis, “Denitrifying phosphorus removal: Linking the process performance with the microbial community structure”, Water Research, vol. 41, pp. 4383-4396, 2007.
[8] H.S. Shin and J.W. Kwak, Nitrogen and phosphorus treatment technology, Environmental Management Research Center, Korea, 2002.
[9] George T. Moore, “Nutrient control design manual”, U.S. E.P.A, Aug. 2010.

Copyright © 2024 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.