Mitigation of Human Exposure to Electromagnetic Fields Using Carbon Foam and Carbon Nanotubes


In recent years there has been increasing concern about the possible consequences on human health from exposure to RF fields produced by wireless telecommunication technologies. In this work the coupling between carbon foam and composite materials made of carbon nanotubes and epoxy-resin allows to build a material able to absorb the electromagnetic field thus reducing its intensity in the environment where the mitigation of electromagnetic field is required. The Frequency range considered is 2 GHz - 3 GHz which is the most common frequency band used in wireless network and microwave oven too. Two different kind of heterogeneous materials are designed, one is a layered radar absorbing material made exclusively of epoxy resin and carbon nanotube in different weight percentage, the others are porous carbon foam where the pores are supposed be filled with carbon nanotubes and epoxy-resin. Both type of materials show interesting absorption properties reaching peak of reflection coefficient between –15 dB and –45 dB for a normally incident plane wave.

Share and Cite:

D. Micheli and M. Marchetti, "Mitigation of Human Exposure to Electromagnetic Fields Using Carbon Foam and Carbon Nanotubes," Engineering, Vol. 4 No. 12A, 2012, pp. 928-943. doi: 10.4236/eng.2012.412A118.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] “Statement on the ‘Guidelines for Limiting Exposure to Time-Varying Electric, Magnetic and Electromagnetic Fields (up to 300 GHz)’,” International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP), 2009.
[2] “IEEE Standard for Safety Levels with Respect to Human Exposure to Radio Frequency Electromagnetic Fields, 3 kHz to 300 GHz,” Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), IEEE Std C95.1, 2005.
[3] World Health Organization, “Base Stations & Wireless Networks, Exposures & Health Consequences,” World Health Organization, Geneva, 15-16 June 2005.
[4] “Electromagnetic Fields and Public Health,” Mobile Phones Fact Sheet No 193, June 2011.
[5] D. Micheli, R. Pastore, C. Apollo, M. Marchetti, G. Gradoni, V. M. Primiani and F. Moglie, “Broadband Electromagnetic Absorbers Using Carbon Nanomaterial-Based Composites,” IEEE Transaction on Microwave and Techniques, Vol. 59, No. 10, 2011, pp. 2633-2646. doi:10.1109/TMTT.2011.2160198
[6] D. Micheli, C. Apollo, R. Pastore, D. Barbera, R. B. Morles, M. Marchetti, G. Gradoni, V. M. Primiani and F. Moglie, “Optimization of Multilayer Shields Made of Composite Nanomateriald Materials,” IEEE Transaction on Electromagnetic Compatibility, Vol. 54, No. 1, 2012, pp. 60-69. doi:10.1109/TEMC.2011.2171688
[7] D. Micheli, R. Pastore and M. Marchetti, “Modeling of Radar Absorbing Materials Using Winning Particle Optimization Applied on Electrically Conductive Nanostructured Composite Material,” The International Journal of Material Science, 2012, in press.
[8] Z. Fang, X. Cao, C. Li, H. Zhang, J. Zhang and H. Zhang, “Investigation of Carbon Foams as Microwave Absorber: Numerical Prediction and Experimental Validation,” Elsevier, Carbon, Vol. 44, No. 15, 2006, pp. 3368-3370. doi:10.1016/j.carbon.2006.07.014.
[9] Z. Fang and C.Fang, “Novel Radar Absorbing Materials with Broad Absorbing Band: Carbon Foams,” Appl Mech Mater, Vol. 26, No. 28, 2010, pp. 246-249. doi:10.4028/www.scienti?
[10] “Multiphysics Modeling, Finite Element Analysis, and Engineering Simulation Software.”
[11] H. Xua, H. Abe, M. Naito, Y. Fukumori, H. Ichikawa, S. Endoh and K. Hata, “Efficient Dispersing and Shortening of Super-Growth Carbon Nanotubes by Ultrasonic Treatment with Ceramic Balls and Surfactants,” Elsevier, Advanced Powder Technology, Vol. 21, No. 5, 2010, pp. 551-555. doi:10.1016/j.bbr.2011.03.031
[12] A. M. Nicolson and G. F. Ross, “Measurement of the Intrinsic Properties of Materials by Time-Domain Techniques,” IEEE Transactions on Instrum. Meas., Vol. IM19, No. 4, 1970, pp. 377-382. doi:10.1109/TIM.1970.4313932
[13] J. Baker-Jarvis, “Transmission/Refection and ShortCircuit Line Permittivity Measurements,” US Department Commerce, NIST, Washington DC, 1990.
[14] A.-H. Boughriet, C. Legrand and A. Chapoton, “Noniterative Stable Transmission/Re?ection Method for LowLoss Material Complex Permittivity Determination,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech., Vol. 45, No. 1, 1997, pp. 52-57. doi:10.1109/22.552032
[15] S. Ramo, J. R. Whinnery and T. Van Duzer, “Fields and Waves in Communication Eletronics,” John Whiley & Sons, Hoboken, 1994.
[16] Y. Huanga, N. Lia, Y. F. Ma, F. Du, F. F. Lin, X. B. He, X. Lin, H. J. Gao and Y. S. Chen, “The In?uence of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Material on the Electromagnetic Interference Shielding Ef?ciency of Its Epoxy Composites,” Elsevier, Carbon, Vol. 45, No. 8, 2007, pp. 1614-1621. doi:10.1016/j.carbon.2007.04.016
[17] N. Li, Y. Huang, F. Du, X. He, X. Lin, H. Gao, Y. Ma, F. Li, Y. Chen and P. C. Eklund, “Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) Shielding of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Epoxy Composites,” Nano Lett., Vol. 6, No. 6, 2006, pp. 1141-1145. doi:10.1021/nl0602589
[18] “Introduction to Solid State Physics,” 6th Edition, John Whiley & Sons, New York, 1986, pp. 448-456.
[19] D. Micheli, C. Apollo, R. Pastore and M. Marchetti, “XBand Microwave Characterization of Carbon-Based Nanocomposite Material, Absorption Capability Comparison and RAS Design Simulation,” Composites Science and Technology, Elsevier, Vol. 70, No. 2, 2010, pp. 400-409. doi:10.1016/j.compscitech.2009.11.015
[20] S. Begley, “Electromagnetic Properties of Materials: Characterization at Microwave Frequencies and Beyond,” Application Development Engineer Agilent Technologies, 2009.
[21] Application Note, “Basics of Measuring the Dielectric Properties of Materials,” Agilent Technologies, 2000.
[22] D. Micheli, “Radar Absorbing Materials and Microwave Shielding Structures Design,” LAP Lambert Academic Publishing, Saarbrücken, 2012, 476 p.
[23] L. J. Gibson and M. F. Ashby, “Cellular Solids: Structure and Properties,” 2nd Edition, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1997.
[24] F. Moglie, D. Micheli, S. Laurenzi, M. Marchetti and V. P. Mariani, “Electromagnetic Shielding Performance of Carbon Foams,” Carbon, Vol. 50, No. 5, 2012, pp. 19721980. doi: 10.1016/j.carbon.2011.12.053

Copyright © 2024 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.