Microbiological Analysis of Sachet and Tap Water in Enugu State of Nigeria


The microbiological quality of sachet and tap water in Enugu,State,Nigeriawas analyzed. Sachet water was purchased from five different manufacturers. Samples Q1, T1, R1, J1, and M1 were directly from the manufacturers while samples Q2, T2, R2, J2, and M2 were obtained from the retailers. Tap water was collected from three different locations in the town. All water samples were subjected to bacteriological (aerobic and anaerobic) and fungal studies using standard bacteriological and mycological methods with little modifications. For sachet water, batch of five packets both from the manufacturer and retailers were analysed and average result taken. Five separate tap water samples were taken from the three different locations. For sachet water, E. coli and S. faecalis were isolated with colony forming units (CFU) ranging from 7 to >500. For tap water, isolates included Coliform, Cl. sp and Penicillium sp. An average of 66% Clostridium sp was recovered from all the tap water of the 3 different locations. Penicillium sp was isolated from only 16.6% of tap samples. Microbial quality may vary rapidly and widely but short-term peaks in pathogen concentration may increase disease risks considerably and may also trigger outbreaks of waterborne disease.

Share and Cite:

M. E. Ohanu, I. P. Udoh and C. I. Eleazar, "Microbiological Analysis of Sachet and Tap Water in Enugu State of Nigeria," Advances in Microbiology, Vol. 2 No. 4, 2012, pp. 547-551. doi: 10.4236/aim.2012.24070.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] N. Okafor, “Aquatic and Waste Microbiology,” 1st Edition, Fourth Dimension Publishing Co. Ltd. Enugu, 1985, pp. 107-126.
[2] W. A. Volk and M. F. “Wheeler, Basic Microbiology,” 4th Edition, J.B. Lippincott Company, Philadelphia, 1980, pp. 252-257.
[3] S. A. Townsend, “The Relationship between Salmonella and Faecal Indicator Bacteria Concentrations in Two Pools in the Australia Wet/Dry Tropics,” Journal of Applied Bacteriology, Vol. 2, No. 73, 1992, pp. 182-188.
[4] M. D. Sobsey, “Microbial Detection: Implications for Exposure, Health Effects, and Control,” In: G. F. Craun, Ed, Safety of Water Disinfection: Balancing Chemical and Microbial Risks, Intl Life Sciences Inst Pres, Washington DC, 2001, pp. 11-51.
[5] B. Rajesh and L. Rattan, “Microbiology of Water, Milk and Air,” In: B. Rajesh and L. Rattan, Eds., Essential of Medical Microbiology, Brothers Medical Publishers, 2004, pp. 447-450.
[6] K. S. Manja, R. Sambasiva, K. V. Chandrashekhava, K. J. Nath, S. Dutta, K. Gopal, L. Iyengar, S. S. Dhindsa and S. C. Parija, “Report of Study on H2S Test for Drinking Water,” UNICEF, New Delhi, 2001.
[7] D. Nagaruju and J. C. V. Sastri, “Confirmed Faecal Pollution to Bore Well Waters of Mysore City,” Environmental Geology, Vol. 4, No. 38, 1999, pp. 322-326. doi:10.1007/s002540050429
[8] L. W. Sinton, R. K. Finlay and D. L. Hannah, “Distinguishing Human from Animal Faecal Contamination in Water, A Review,” New Zealand Journal of Marine & Freshwater Research, Vol. 2, No. 32, 1998, pp. 323-348. doi:10.1080/00288330.1998.9516828
[9] D. S. Mark and K. P. Frederic, “Evaluation of the H2S Method for Detection of Faecal Contamination of Drinking Water,” WHO/SDE/WSH/02.08 Geneva, 2002.
[10] P. Kaspar, I. Guillen, D. Revelli, T. Meza, G. Velazquez, L. Mino de Kasper, C. Pozolli, C. Nunez and G. Zoulek, “Evaluation of a Simple Screening Test for the Quality of Drinking Water Systems,” Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology, Vol. 3, No. 43, 1992, pp. 124-127.
[11] WHO, “Water Indicators (Draft Document),” OECD, World Health Organization, Geneva, 2002.
[12] G. Castillo, R. Duarte, Z. Ruiz, M. T. Marucic, B. Honorato, R. Mercado, V. Coloma, V. Lorca, M. T. Martins and B. J. Dutka, “Evaluation of Disinfected and Untreated Drinking Water Supplies in Chile by the H2S Paper Strip Test,” Water Research, Vol. 11, No. 28, 1994, pp. 1765-1770. doi:10.1016/0043-1354(94)90249-6
[13] B. Genthe and M. Franck, “A Tool for Assessing Microbial Quality in Small Community Water Supplies,” WRC Report Pages to Water Research Commission by Division of Water, Environment and Forestry Technology, CSIR, Stellenbosch, Vol. 33, No. 961/1/99, 1999.
[14] M. Martins, G. Castillo and B. J Dutka, “Evaluation of Drinking Water Treatment Plant Efficiency in Microorganism Removal by the Coliphage, Total Coliform and H2S Paper Strip Test,” Water Science and Technology, Vol. 3, No. 35, 1997, pp. 403-407. doi:10.1016/S0273-1223(97)00293-X
[15] C. Venkobachar, D. Kumar, K. Taireja, A. Kumar and I. Iyengar, “Assessment of Bacteriological Quality Using a Modified H2S Strip test,” Aqua (Ottoro), Vol. 6, No. 43, 1994, pp. 311-314.
[16] G. K. Rijal, R. S. Fujioka and C. A. Ziel, “Evaluation of the Hydrogen Sulfide Bacteria Test, a Simple Test to Determine the Hygienic Quality of Drinking Water, Abstracts of the General meeting of the American Society for Microbiology,” Poster Presentation (Unpublished), American Society of Microbiology, Washington DC, 2000.
[17] P. Kromoredjo and R. Fujioka, “Evaluating Three Simple Methods to Assess the Microbial Quality of Drinking Water in Indonesia,” Environmental technology and Water Quality, Vol. 1, No. 6, 1991, pp. 259-270.
[18] A. Boubetra, C. C. Le Nestour Allaert and M. Feinberg, “Validation of Alternative Methods for the Analysis of Drinking Water and Their Application to Escherichia coli,” Applied and Environmental Microbiology, Vol. 10, No. 77, 2011, pp. 3360-3367. doi:10.1128/AEM.00020-11
[19] R. T. Noble, M. K. Leecaster, C. D. McGee, S. B. Weis- berg and K. Ritter, “Comparison of Total Feacal Coliform and Enterococcus Response for Ocean Recreational Water Quality Testing,” Water Research, Vol. 37, No. 7, 2003, pp. 1637-1643. doi:10.1016/S0043-1354(02)00496-7
[20] M. Arvanitidou, S. Spaia, A. Velegraki, M. Pazargbou, D. Kanetidis, P. Pangidis, N. Askepidis, C. H. Katsinas, G. Vayonas and V. Katsouyannopoulos, “High Level of Recovery of Fungi from Water and Dialysate in Heamolysis Unit,” Journal of Hospital Infection, Vol. 3, No. 45, 2000, pp. 225-230. doi:10.1053/jhin.2000.0763
[21] M. Y. Sweeny and A. D. Dobson, “Mycotoxin Production by Aspergillus, Fusarium and Penicillin Species,” International Journal of Food Microbiology, Vol. 3, No. 43, 1998, pp. 141-158. doi:10.1016/S0168-1605(98)00112-3
[22] M. J. Sweeny, S. White and A. D. W. Dobson, “Mycotoxin in Agriculture and Food,” Irish Journal of Agriculture and Food Research, Vol. 2, No. 39, 2000, pp. 235-244.
[23] S. Kalpana A. I. Bagudo and A. A. Aliero “Microbiological Analysis of Sachet Drinking Water Marketed at Two Sites in Aliero, Kebbi State, Nigeria,” Continental Journal of Microbiology, Vol. 1, No. 5, 2011, pp. 29-36.
[24] WHO, “Guidelines for Drinking-Water Quality (3rd Edition), Incorporating First and Second Addenda, Vol. 1, Recommendations,” World Health Organization, Geneva, 2008.

Copyright © 2024 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.