Vermiculture Technology: Reviving the Dreams of Sir Charles Darwin for Scientific Use of Earthworms in Sustainable Development Programs


Vermiculture technology is emerging as an “environmentally sustainable”, “economically viable” and “socially acceptable” technology all over the world. 1) Vermi-composting Technology (to manage most organic wastes); 2) Vermi-filtration Technology (to treat municipal & several industrial wastewater); 3) Vermi- remediation Technology (to treat & clean up contaminated lands); 4) Vermi-agro-production Technology (to produce chemical-free organic foods by worms & vermicompost); 5) Vermi-industrial Production Technology (to produce valuable industrial raw materials from worms). The use of earthworms as “waste managers” for efficient “composting of food and farm wastes” and as “soil managers” for “fertility improvement” and enhanced “farm production” were known for ages but now it is being more scientifically and also commercially revived. The other uses of earthworms for the benefits of environment and society (wastewater treatment, land remediation & production of valuable medicines even to combat cancer and heart diseases; raw materials for rubber, lubricant, soap, detergent & cosmetic, industries and protein rich feed materials for fishery, dairy & poultry industries are some “new discoveries”. We have successfully experimented with the first four technologies for management of “municipal solid wastes”, treatment of “municipal & industrial wastewater”, remediation of “PAHs contaminated soils” and production of “wheat & corn crops” by use of vermicompost at Griffith University, Australia, with excellent results. Wastes are degraded by over 75% faster than conventional systems and compost produced are disinfected, detoxified, richer in nutrients & beneficial soil microbes; BOD loads & TSS of wastewater is reduced by over 95%; PAHs from contaminated soils are removed by over 80% in just 12 weeks; and crops growths are promoted by 30-40% higher as compared to chemical fertilizers. Earthworms are both “protective” & “productive” for environment and society.

Share and Cite:

R. Sinha, S. Agarwal, K. Chauhan, V. Chandran and B. Soni, "Vermiculture Technology: Reviving the Dreams of Sir Charles Darwin for Scientific Use of Earthworms in Sustainable Development Programs," Technology and Investment, Vol. 1 No. 3, 2010, pp. 155-172. doi: 10.4236/ti.2010.13019.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] M. Lotzof, “Vermiculture: An Australian Technology Success Story,” Waste Management Magazine, Australia, February 2000.
[2] R. K. Sinha, J. Nair, G. Bharambe, S. Patil and P. S. Bapat, “Vermiculture Revolution: A Low-Cost & Sustainable Technology for Management of Municipal & Industrial Organic Wastes (Solid & Liquid) by Earthworms with Significantly Low Greenhouse Gas Emissions,” In: J. I. Daven and R. N. Klein, Eds., Progress in Waste Management Research, NOVA Science Publishers, Hauppauge, 2008, pp. 159-227.
[3] R. K. Sinha, S. Herat, G. Bharambe, S. Patil, P. S. Bapat, K. Chauhan and D. Valani, “Vermiculture Biotechnology: The Emerging Cost-Effective and Sustainable Technology of the 21st Century for Multiple Uses from Waste & Land Management to Safe & Sustained Food Production,” Environmental Research Journal, NOVA Science Publishers, Hauppauge, Vol. 3, No. 1, 2009, pp. 41-110.
[4] C. A. Edwards and J. R. Lofty, “Biology of Earthworms,” Chapman & Hall, London, 1972, p. 283.
[5] C. A. Edwards and P. J. Bohlen, “Biology and Ecology of Earthworms,” 3rd Edition, Chapman and Hall, London, 1996.
[6] C. Visvanathan, J. Trankler, K. Jospeh and R. Nagendran, (Eds.) “Vermicomposting as an Eco-Tool in Sustainable Solid Waste Management,” Asian Institute of Technology, Annamalai University, Chidambaram, 2005.
[7] P. Hand, “Earthworm Biotechnology,” In: R. Greenshields, Ed., Resources and Application of Biotechnology: The New Wave, Macmillan Press Ltd, US, 1988.
[8] J. E. Satchell, “Earthworm Ecology from Darwin to Vermiculture,” Chapman and Hall Ltd., London, 1983, pp. 1-5.
[9] M. Kerr and A. J. Stewart, “Tolerance Test of Eisinia fetida for Sodium Chloride,” Journal of Undergraduate Research, U.S Department of Energy, 2002. http:www.
[10] R. K. Sinha, “Earthworms: The Miracle of Nature (Charles Darwin’s ‘Unheralded Soldiers of Mankind and Farmer’s Friends’),” The Environmentalist, Vol. 29, No. 4, August 2009, pp. 339-340.
[11] M. Appelhof, “Worms Eat My Garbage,” 2nd Edition, Flower Press, Kalamazoo, Michigan, 1997. http://www.
[12] Z. W. Wang, “Research Advances in Earthworms Bioengineering Technology,” Medica, Vol. 31, No. 5, 2000, pp. 386-389.
[13] R. C. Loehr, J. H. Martin, E. F. Neuhauser and M. R. Malecki, “Waste Management Using Earthworms—Engi- neering and Scientific Relationships,” Project Report ISP-8016764, National Science Foundation, Washington, D.C., 1984.
[14] C. A. Edwards, “The Use of Earthworms in the Breakdown and Management of Organic Wastes,” In: C. A. Edwards, Ed., Earthworm Ecology, CRC Press, Boca Raton, 1998, pp. 327-354.
[15] M. T. Datar, M. N. Rao and S. Reddy, “Vermicomposting: A Technological Option for Solid Waste Management,” Solid Waste Technology and Management, Vol. 24, No. 2, 1997, pp. 89-93.
[16] G. Fraser-Quick, “Vermiculture—A Sustainable Total Waste Management Solution,” What’s New in Waste Management? Vol. 4, No. 6, 2002, pp. 13-16.
[17] C. A. Edwards, “Breakdown of Animal, Vegetable and Industrial Organic Wastes by Earthworms,” In: C. A. Edward and E. F. Neuhauser, Ed., Earthworms in Waste and Environmental Management, SPB Academic Publishing, The Hague, 1988, pp. 21-32.
[18] R. D. Kale, “Earthworms: Nature’s Gift for Utilization of Organic Wastes,” In: C. A. Edward, Ed., Earthworm Ecology, St. Lucie Press, NY, 1998.
[19] R. D. Kale and N. S. Sunitha, “Efficiency of Earthworms (E. Eugeniae) in Converting the Solid Waste from Aromatic Oil Extraction Industry into Vermicompost,” Journal of IAEM, Vol. 22, No. 1, 1995, pp. 267-269.
[20] S. N. Seenappa, J. Rao and R. Kale, “Conversion of Distillery Wastes into Organic Manure by Earthworm Eudrillus euginae,” Journal of IAEM, Vol. 22, No. 1, 1995, pp.244-246.
[21] K. Gunathilagraj and T. Ravignanam, “Vermicomposting of Sericultural Wastes,” Madras Agricultural Journal, Coimbatore, 1996, pp. 455-457.
[22] B. L. Lakshmi and G. S. Vizaylakshmi, “Vermicomposting of Sugar Factory Filter Pressmud Using African Earthworms Species (Eudrillus eugeniae),” Pollution Research, Vol. 19, No. 3, 2000, pp. 481-483.
[23] M. Saxena, A. Chauhan and P. Asokan, “Flyash Vemicompost from Non-Friendly Organic Wastes,” Pollution Research, Vol. 17, No. 1, 1998, pp. 5-11.
[24] O. Bajsa, J. Nair, K. Mathew and G. E. Ho, “Pathogen Die-Off in Vermicomposting Process,” Paper Presented at the International Conference on Small Water and Wastewater Treatment Systems, Perth, 2004.
[25] R. K. Sinha, A. S. Herat, R. Asadi and E. Carretero, “Vermiculture Technology for Environmental Management: Study of Action of Earthworms Eisenia fetida, Eudrilus euginae and Perionyx excavatus on Biodegradation of Some Community Wastes in India and Australia,” The Environmentalist, Vol. 22, No. 2, 2002, pp. 261-268.
[26] R. K. Sinha, S. Herat, G. Bharambe and A. Brahambhatt, “Vermistabilization of Sewage Sludge (Biosolids) by Earthworms: Converting a Potential Biohazard Destined for Landfill Disposal into a Pathogen Free, Nutritive & Safe Bio-Fertilizer for Farms,” Journal of Waste Management & Research, 2009.
[27] R. K. Sinha, S. Herat, D. Valani, K. Singh and K. Chauhan, “Vermitechnology for Sustainable Solid Waste Management: A Comparative Study of Vermicomposting of Food & Green Wastes with Conventional Composting Systems to Evaluate the Efficiency of Earthworms in Sustainable Waste Management with Reduction in Green- house Gas Emissions,” NOVA Science Publications, Hauppauge, 2010.
[28] M. C. Dash, “Role of Earthworms in the Decomposer System,” In: J. S. Singh and B. Gopal, Eds., Glimpses of Ecology, India International Scientific Publication, New Delhi, 1978, pp. 399-406.
[29] F. Binet, L. Fayolle and M. Pussard, “Significance of Earthworms in Stimulating Soilmicrobial Activity,” Biology and Fertility of Soils, Vol. 27, No. 1, 1998, pp. 79-84.
[30] D. R. Singleton, B. F. Hendrix, D. C. Coleman and W. B. Whitemann, “Identification of Uncultured Bacteria Tight- ly Associated with the Intestine of the Earthworms Lumricus rubellus,” Soil Biology and Biochemistry, Vol. 35, 2003, pp. 1547-1555.
[31] C. A. Edwards and K. E. Fletcher, “Interaction between Earthworms and Micro-Organisms in Organic Matter Breakdown,” Agriculture Ecosystems and Environment, Vol. 24, No. 1-3, 1988, pp. 235-247.
[32] M. Morgan and I. Burrows, “Earthworms/Microorga- nisms Interactions,” Rothamsted Experimental Station, USA, 1982.
[33] M. Appelhof, “Notable Bits,” In: WormEzine, Vol. 2, No. 5, May 2003.
[34] V. Pierre, R. Phillip, L. Margnerite and C. Pierrette, “Anti-Bacterial Activity of the Haemolytic System from the Earthworms Eisenia fetida andrei,” Invertebrate Pathology, Vol. 40, No. 1, 1982, pp. 21-27.
[35] R. Hartenstein and F. Hartenstein, “Physico-Chemical Changes Affected in Activated Sludge by the Earthworms Eisenia fetida,” Journal of Environmental Quality, Vol. 10, No. 3, 1981, pp. 377-382.
[36] R. K. Sinha, and A. Chan, “Study of Emission of Greenhouse Gases by Brisbane Households Practicing Different Methods of Composting of Food & Garden Wastes: Aerobic, Anaerobic and Vermicomposting,” NRMA— Griffith University Project Report, 2009.
[37] R. Sherman, “Commercial Systems Latest Development in Mid-to-Large Scale Vermicomposting,” Biocycle, November 2000, p. 51.
[38] G. Munroe, “Manual of on-Farm Vermicomposting and Vermiculture,” Organic Agriculture Centre of Canada, 2007, p. 39.
[39] P. Bogdanov, “Commercial Vermiculture: How to Build a Thriving Business in Redworms,” VermiCo Press, Oregon, 1996, p. 83.
[40] C. A. Edward, “Potential of Vermicomposting for Processing and Upgrading Organic Waste,” Ohio State University, Ohio, 2000.
[41] NCSU, “Large Scale Vermi-Composting Operations— Data from Vermi-Cycle Organics, Inc.,” North Carolina State University, 1997.
[42] K. M. Li and P. Z. Li, “Earthworms Helping Economy, Improving Ecology and Protecting Health,” In: R. K. Sinha, et al., Eds., International Journal of Environmental Engineering (Special Issue on ‘Vermiculture Technology’), 2010.
[43] H. Mihara, M. Sumi, H. Mizumoto, T. Yoneta, R. Ikeda and M. Maruyama, “Oral Administration of Earthworm Powder as Possible Thrombolytic Therapy,” Recent Advances in Thrombosis and Fibrinolysis, Academic Press, New York, 1990, pp. 287-298.
[44] GEORG, “Feasibility of Developing the Organic and Transitional Farm Market for Processing Municipal and Farm Organic Wastes Using Large-Scale Vermicomposting,” Good Earth Organic Resources Group, Halifax, Nova Scotia, 2004. http://www.alternativeor-
[45] J. Frederickson, “The Worm’s Turn,” Waste Management Magazine, UK, August 2000.
[46] M. Gary, “Personal Communication from Envirofert (on Commercial Vermicomposting of Green Waste in New Zealand,” 2009.
[47] S. Komarowski, “Vermiculture for Sewage and Water Treatment Sludge,” WATER, July 2001.
[48] U. S. Bhawalkar, “Vermiculture Eco-Technology,” Publication of Bhawalkar Earthworm Research Institute (BERI), Pune, 1995.
[49] P. K. Singh, “Production and Use of Vermicompost in India,” College of Horticulture, Rajendra Agriculture University, Bihar, 2010.
[50] R. D. Kale, “The Role of Earthworms and Research on Vermiculture in India,” In: R. Guerrero and M. Guerrero, Eds., Vermitechnologies for Developing Countries, Proceedings of the International Symposium on Vermi Technologies for Developing Countries, Philippines, 2005, pp. 66-88.
[51] R. Guerrero, “Commercial Vermimeal Production,” In: R. Guerrero and M. Guerrero, Eds., Vermitechnologies for Developing Countries, Proceedings of the International Symposium on Vermi Technologies for Developing Countries, Philippines, 2005, p. 175.
[52] S. Pajon, “The Worms Turn – Argentina,” Intermediate Technology Development Group, Case Study Series 4, Munroe, 2007.
[53] Z.-J. Sun, “Vermiculture and Vermi Protein,” China Agricultural University Press, Beijing, 2003, p. 366.
[54] A. Lopez and R. Alis, “Indigenous Use of Native Earthworms and its Fatty Acids Profile,” Paper Presented at the Inernational Symposium on Vermitechnologies for Developing Countries, Laguna, Philippines, Also in Utilization of Earthworms for Health Remedies, 2005.
[55] I. N. Titov and B. M. Anokhin, “The Ten-Year Results of Treatment with the Extract of Earthworm Tissues,” Innovation Centre, Moscow, Russia, In: R. Guerrero and M. Guerrero, Eds., Vermitechnologies for Developing Countries; Proceedings of the International Symposium on Vermi Technologies for Developing Countries, Philippines, 2005, pp. 148-149.
[56] B. Tanaka and S. Nakata, “Studies of ‘Antipyretic Components’ from the Japanese Earthworm,” Tokyo Igaku Zasshi, Vol. 29, 1974, pp. 67-97.
[57] O. Bajsa, J. Nair, K. Mathew and G. E. Ho, “Vermiculture as a Tool for Domestic Wastewater Management,” Water Science and Technology, IWA Publishing, Vol. 48, No. 11-12, 2003, pp. 125-132.
[58] R. Hartenstein and M. S. Bisesi, “Use of Earthworm Biotechnology for the Management of Effluents from Intensively Housed Livestock,” Outlook Agriculture, Vol. 18, No. 2, 1989, pp. 72-76.
[59] M. Taylor, W. P. Clarke and P. F. Greenfield, “The Treatment of Domestic Wastewater Using Small-Scale Vermicompost Filter Beds,” Ecological Engineering, Vol. 21, No. 2-3, 2003, pp. 197-203.
[60] M. A. Soto and J. Toha, “Ecological Wastewater Treatment,” Advanced Wastewater Treatment, Recycling and Reuse, AWT 98, Milano, 14-16 September 2008.
[61] M. Xing, J. Yang and Z. Lu, “Microorganism-Earthworm Integrated Biological Treatment Process—A Sewage Treatment Option for Rural Settlements,” ICID 21st European Regional Conference, Frankfurt, 15-19 May 2005.
[62] R. K. Sinha, G. Bharambe and U. Chowdhary, “Sewage Treatment by Vermi-Filtration with Synchronous Treatment of Sludge by Earthworms: A Low-Cost Sustainable Technology over Conventional Systems with Potential for Decentralization,” The Environmentalist, Springer, Vol. 28, No. 4, 8 April 2008, pp. 409-420.
[63] R. K. Sinha, G. Bharambe and P. D. Bapat, “Removal of High BOD & COD Loadings of Primary Liquid Waste Products from Dairy Industry by Vermi-Filtration Technology Using Earthworms,” Indian Journal of Environmental Protection, Vol. 27, No. 6, 2007, pp. 486-501.
[64] V. Chandran and B. Soni, “Vermifiltration of Fruit Juice Processing Wastewater from in Brisbane,” 40 CP Vermiculture Project, School of Engineering (Environment), Griffith University, Nathan Campus, Brisbane, Australia, (Supervisors Dr. Rajiv K. Sinha & Dr. Sunil Herat), 2010.
[65] R. J. Hughes, J. Nair and K. Mathew, “The Implications of Wastewater Vermicomposting Technologies: On-Site Treatment Systems for Sustainable Sanitation,” WAMDEC Conference, Zimbabwe, 27-30 July 2005.
[66] S. I. Markman, A. Guschina, S. Barnsleya, L. Katherine, B. David and C.T. Muller, “Endocrine Disrupting Chemi- cals Accumulate in Earthworms Exposed to Sewage Effluents,” Chemosphere, Vol. 70, No. 1, 2007, pp. 119- 125.
[67] C. N. Lowe and K. R. Butt, “Inoculation of Earthworms into Reclaimed Soils: Experiences from Britain,” Proceedings of 9th International Waste Management and Landfill Symposium, Sardinia, 2003.
[68] K. R. Butt, C. N. Lowe, J. Frederickson and A. J. Moffat, “The Development of Sustainable Earthworm Popula- tions at Calvert Landfill Site, UK,” Land Degradation & Development, Vol. 15, No. 1, 2004, pp. 27-36.
[69] R. Hartenstein, E. F. Neuhauser and J. Collier, “Accumulation of Heavy Metals in the Earthworm E. foetida,” Environmental Quality, Vol. 9, No. 1, 1980, pp. 23-26.
[70] W. C. Ma, J. Imerzeel and J. Bodt, “Earthworm and Food Interactions on Bioaccumulation and Disappearance of Pahs: Studies on Phenanthrene and Flouranthene,” Eco- toxicology and Environmental Safety, Vol. 32, No. 3, 1995, pp. 226-232.
[71] S. M. Contreras-Ramos, D. Alvarez-Bernal and L. Den- dooven, “Eisenia fetida Increased Removal of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) from Soil,” Environ- mental Pollution, Vol. 141, No. 3, 2006, pp. 396-401.
[72] Y. Tomoko, K. Toyota and S. Hiroaki, “Enhanced Bioremediation of Oil-Contaminated Soil by a Combination of the Earthworm (Eisenia Fetida) and Tea Extraction Residue,” Edaphologia, Vol. 77, 2005, pp. 1-9.
[73] M. Schaefer, “Earthworms in Crude Oil Contaminated Soils: Toxicity Tests and Effects on Crude Oil Degrada- tion,” Contaminated Soil Sediment & Water, Vol. 35, 2005, pp. 7-8.
[74] J. Martin-Gil, L. M. Navas-Gracia, E. Gomez-Sobrino, A. Correa-Guimaraes, S. Hernandez-Navarro and M. Sanchez-Bascones, “Composting and Vermicomposting Experiences in the Treatments and Bioconversion of Asphaltens from the Prestige Oil Spill,” Journal of Bioresource Technology, Vol. 99, No. 6, 2007, pp. 1821-1829.
[75] B. Davis, “Laboratory Studies on the Uptake of Dieldrin and DDT by Earthworms,” Soil Biology and Biochemistry, Vol. 3, 1971, pp. 221-223.
[76] M. P. Ireland, “Heavy Metals Uptake in Earthworms,” Earthworm Ecology, Chapman & Hall, London, 1983.
[77] J. Haimi, J. Salminen, V. Huhta, J. Knuutinen and H. Palm, “Bioaccumulation of Organochlorine Compounds in Earthworms,” Soil Biology & Biochemistry, Vol. 24, No. 12, 1992, pp. 1699-1703.
[78] N. S. Bolan and S. Baskaran, “Characteristics of Earthworm Casts Affecting Herbicide Sorption and Movement,” Biological Fertility of Soils, Vol. 22, No. 4, 1996, pp. 367-372.
[79] B. Gevao, C. Mordaunt, K. T. Semple, T. G. Piearce and K. C. Jones, “Bioavailability of Nonextractable (Bound) Pesticide Residues to Earthworms,” Environmental Science & Technology, Vol. 35, No. 3, 2001, pp. 501-507.
[80] A. C. Singer, W. Jury, E. Leupromchai, C.-S. Yahng and D. E. Crowley, “Contribution of Earthworms to PCB Bioremediation,” Journal of Soil Biology & Biochemistry, Vol. 33, No. 6, 2001, pp. 765-775.
[81] R. K. Sinha, G. Bharambe and D. Ryan, “Converting Wasteland into Wonderland by Earthworms: A Low-Cost Nature’s Technology for Soil Remediation: A Case Study of Vermiremediation of PAH Contaminated Soil,” The Environmentalist, Vol. 28, No. 4, 14 May 2008, pp. 466-475.
[82] K. R. Butt, “Inoculation of Earthworms into Reclaimed Soils: The UK Experience,” Land Degradation and Development, Vol. 10, No. 6, 1999, pp. 565-575.
[83] G. B. Brown and B. M. Doube, “On Earthworms Assisted Bioremediation,” In: C. A. Edward, Ed., Earthworm Ecology, 2nd Edition, CRC Press, Boca Raton, 2004, pp. 213-239.
[84] R. D. Kale and K. Bano, “Field Trials with Vermicompost: An Organic Fertilizer,” Proceedings of National Seminar on Organic Waste Utilization by Vermicomposting, GKVK Agricultural University, Bangalore, 1986.
[85] C. A. Edwards and I. Burrows, “The Potential of Earthworms Composts as Plant Growth Media,” In: C. A. Edward and E. F. Neuhauser, Eds., Earthworms in Waste and Environmental Management, SPB Academic Publishing, The Hague, The Netherlands, 1988, pp. 21-32.
[86] L. P. Canellas, F. L. Olivares, A. L. Okorokova and R. A. Facanha, “Humic Acids Isolated from Earthworm Compost Enhance Root Elongation, Lateral Root Emergence, and Plasma Membrane H+-Atpase Activity in Maize Roots,” Plant Physiology, Vol. 130, No. 4, 2002, pp. 1951-1957.
[87] H. I. Chaoui, L. M. Zibilske and T. Ohno, “Effects of Earthworms Casts and Compost on Soil Microbial Activity and Plant Nutrient Availability,” Soil Biology and Biochemistry, Vol. 35, No. 2, 2003, pp. 295-302.
[88] G. H. Baker, P. M. Williams, P. J. Carter and N. R. Long, “Influence of Lumbricid Earthworms on Yield and Quality of Wheat and Clover in Glasshouse Trials,” Journal of Soil Biology and Biochemistry, Vol. 29, No. 3-4, 1997, pp. 599-602.
[89] S. Palaniswamy, “Earthworm and Plant Interactions,” Paper Presented in ICAR Training Program, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore, 1996.
[90] N. Q. Arancon, C. A. Edwards, P. Bierman, C. Welch and J. D. Metzger, “Influences of Vermicomposts on Field Strawberries-1: Effects on Growth and Yields,” Bioresource Technology, Vol. 93, No. 2, 2004, pp. 145-153.
[91] K. A. Webster, “Vermicompost Increases Yield of Cherries for Three Years after a Single Application,” EcoResearch, South Australia, 2005. http:www.ecoresearch.
[92] J. C. Buckerfield and K. A. Webster, “Worm-Worked Waste Boost Grape Yield: Prospects for Vermicompost Use in Vineyards,” The Australian and New Zealand Wine Industry Journal, Vol. 13, No. 1, 1998, pp. 73-76.
[93] R. K. Sinha, S. Herat, D. Valani and K. Chauhan, “Vermiculture and Sustainable Agriculture,” American-Eura- sian Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, IDOSI Publication (Special Issue), 2009, pp. 1-55. http:
[94] A. A. Ansari, “Effect of Vermicompost on the Productivity of Potato (Solanum tuberosum) Spinach (Spinacia oleracea) and Turnip (Brassica campestris),” World Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Vol. 4, No. 3, 2008, pp. 333- 336.
[95] C. A. Edwards and N. Arancon, “Vermicompost Suppress Plant Pests and Disease Attacks,” REDNOVA NEWS, 2004. display/?id = 55938
[96] G. F. de Boer and O. Sova, “Vermicomposting as a Resource for Biodegradable Detergents,” 4th ZERI World Congress, Windhoek, Namibia, 1998.
[97] C. H. Cordero, “Earthworms Can Help Dissolve Blood Clots for Stroke Patients,” 2005. http://www.thenewsto-
[98] W. L. Cheng and Z. J. Sun, “Pharmaceutical Value and Uses of Earthworms,” Vermillenium Abstracts, Flower- field Enterprizes, Kalamazoo, 2000.
[99] E. Cooper, “New Enzymes Isolated from Earthworms is Potent Fibrinolytic,” ACAM Integrative Medicine Blog, Oxford University Press Journal, 2009. http://acam. index.html
[100] C. M. Hwang, D. Kim and S. H. Huh, “In-vivo Evaluation of Lumbrokinase Extracted from Earthworms Lumbricus rubellus in a Prosthetic Vascular Graft,” Cardiovascular Surgery, Vol. 43, No. 6, 2002, pp. 891-894.
[101] C. Qingsui, “A New Medicine for Heart Diseases Containing Enzyme Activator Extracted from Earthworms,” In: Lopez & Alis, The Utilization of Earthworms for Health Remedies, 2003.
[102] H. Mihara, M. Maruyama and H. Sumi, “Novel Thrombolytic Therapy Discovered in Oriental Medicine Using the Earthworms,” SE Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine & Health, Vol. 23, Suppl 2, 1992, pp. 131-140.
[103] S. L. Li, “Research on di long’s (Earthworms) Effect in Lowering Blood Pressure,” Journal of Information, Vol. 12, No. 3, 1995, pp. 22-24.
[104] R. Moss, “Of Enzymes, Worms & Cancer: The War on Cancer (Lumbrokinsae enzyme from Earthworms),” Worm Digest, 2004. view/161/2/
[105] L. Jin, H. Jin, G. Zhang and G. Xu, “Changes in Coagulation and Tissue Plasminogen Activator after the Treatment of Cerebral Infarction with Lumbrokinsae (from Earthworms),” Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation, Vol. 23, 2000, pp. 213-218.
[106] UNSW, ROU, “Best Practice Guidelines to Managing On-Site Vermiculture Technologies,” University of New South Wales Recycling Organics Unit, Sydney, 2002.
[107] R. A. Dynes, “Earthworms: Technology Information to Enable the Development of Earthworm Production,” Rural Industries Research and Development Corporation, Government of Australia, Canberra, 2003.

Copyright © 2024 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.