Genetic characterization of Northeast Asian cattle based on sequence polymorphisms in the complete mitochondrial genome


In this study, we analyzed complete mtDNA sequences variation and genetic relationship among taurine, indicine and Bison groups. In total, 107 sequences from different breeds, 45 European (45 Italian), 16 Middle East Asian (seven Iranian and nine Iraqi), 41 Northeast Asian (34 Korean and seven Japanese), two Nellore (Bos indicus) and two American Bison bison (Ame. bison) were obtained from Gen-Bank database. One Korean Hanwoo (Bos taurus) sequence was generated using the SOLiDTM System. In total, 1370 polymorphic sites, representing 8.39% of the complete 107 mtDNA sequences (16,338 bp) were detected and of these, 1186 parsimony informative polymorphic sites were identified. Neighbor-joining tree indicated that Korean, Japanese, Iranian, Iraqi, and Italian cattle were closely related to one another, but are separated from B. Bison. The B. taurus mtDNA polymorphism was greater in the D-loop than in the other regions. The ATP8, ND3, ND5, and ND6 regions were also quite parsimony informative, similar to Cyt b. In addition, this study revealed a distinct genetic difference between Korean cattle and B. indicus.

Share and Cite:

Lee, J. , Lee, K. , Ahn, S. , Lee, S. , Lim, D. , Kim, Y. , Cho, E. , Kim, K. , Dadi, H. and Kim, T. (2012) Genetic characterization of Northeast Asian cattle based on sequence polymorphisms in the complete mitochondrial genome. Open Journal of Animal Sciences, 2, 217-223. doi: 10.4236/ojas.2012.24030.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Phillips, W. (1961) World distribution of the major types of cattle. Journal of Heredity, 52, 207-213.
[2] Kim, J. B. and Lee, C. (2000) Historical look at the genetic improvement in Korean cattle. Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, 13, 1467-1481.
[3] Kim, K.I, Lee, J.H., Lee, S.S. and Yang, Y.H. (2003) Phylogenetic relationships of northeast Asian cattle to other cattle populations determined using mitochondrial DNA D-Loop sequence polymorphism. Biochemical Genetics, 41, 91-98. doi:10.1023/A:1022021900205
[4] Kim, K.S., Yeo, J.S. and Choi, C.B. (2002) Genetic diversity of northeast Asian cattle based on microsatellite data. Animal genetics, 33, 201-204. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2052.2002.00848.x
[5] Hiendleder, S., Lewalski, H. and Janke, A. (2008) Complete mitochondrial genomes of Bos taurus and Bos indicus provide new insights into intra-species variation, taxonomy and domestication. Cytogenetic and Genome Research, 120, 150-156. doi:10.1159/000118756
[6] Kim, E., Cheong, H.S., Bae, J.S., Chun, J., Park, T.J., Lee, K., Yun, Y. and Shin, H.D. (2010) Identification of genetic polymorphisms in bovine mitochon-drial deoxyri-bonucleic acid. Journal of animal science, 88, 2551-2555. doi:10.2527/jas.2009-2235
[7] Thomson, J.D., Higgins, D.G. and Gibson, T.J. (1994) CLUSTALW: Improving the sensitivity of progressive multiple sequence alignment through sequence weighting, position-specific gap penalties and weight matrix choice. Nucleic Acids Research, 22, 4673-4680. doi:10.1093/nar/22.22.4673
[8] Tamura, K., Nei, M. and Kumar, S. (2004) Prospects for inferring very large phylogenies by using the neighbor-joining method. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 101, 11030- 11035. doi:10.1073/pnas.0404206101
[9] Tamura, K., Dudley, J., Nei, M. and Kumar, S. (2007) MEGA4: Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis (MEGA) software version 4.0. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 24, 1596-1599. doi:10.1093/molbev/msm092
[10] Saitou, N. and Nei, M. (1987) The neighbor-joining method: A new method for reconstructing phylogenetic trees. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 4, 406-425.
[11] Edwards, C.J., Magee, D.A., Park, S.D., McGettigan, P.A., Lohan, A.J., Murphy, A., Finlay, E.K., Shapiro, B., Chamberlain, A.T., Richards, M.B., Bradley, D.G., Loftus, B.J. and MacHugh, D.E. (2010) A complete mitochon-drial genome sequence from a mesolithic wild aurochs (Bos primigenius). PloS One, 5, e9255. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0009255
[12] Stock, F., Edwards, C.J., Bollongino, R., Finlay, E.K., Burger, J. and Bardley, D.G. (2009) Cytochrome b sequences of ancient cattle and wild ox support phylogenetic complexity in the ancient and modern bovine populations. Animal genetics, 40, 694-700. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2052.2009.01905.x
[13] Loftus, R.T., Machugh, D.E., Bradley, D.G., Sharp, P.M. and Cunningham, P. (1994) Evidence for two independent domestications of cattle. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 91, 2757-2761. doi:10.1073/pnas.91.7.2757
[14] Mannen, H., Tsuji, S., Loftus, R.T. and Bradley, D.G. (1998) Mitochondrial DNA variation and evolution of Japanese black cattle (Bos taurus). Genetics, 150, 1169- 1175.
[15] Cai, X., Chen, H., Lei, C., Wang, S., Xue, K. and Zhang, B. (2007) mtDNA diversity and genetic lineages of eighteen cattle breeds from Bos taurus and Bos indicus in China. Genetica, 131, 175-183. doi:10.1007/s10709-006-9129-y
[16] Xuan, T.P., Georgescu, S.E., Manea, M.A., Hermenean, A. O. and Costache M. (2010) Genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships of Romanian cattle breeds inferred from cytochrome b gene partial sequences. Romanian Biotechnological Letters, 15, 5154-5158.

Copyright © 2024 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.