A Hybrid Algorithm to Address Ambiguities in Deformable Image Registration for Radiation Therapy


We proposed the use of a hybrid deformable image registration approach that combines compact-support radial basis functions (CSRBF) spline registration with intensity-based image registration. The proposed method first uses the pre-viously developed image intensity-based method to achieve voxel-by-voxel correspondences over the entire image re-gion. Next, for those areas of inaccurate registration, a sparse set of landmark correspondences was defined for local deformable image registration using a multi-step CSRBF approach. This hybrid registration takes advantage of both intensity-based method for automatic processing of entire images and the CSRBF spline method for fine adjustment over specific regions. The goal of using this hybrid registration is to locally control the quality of registration results in specific regions of interest with minimal human intervention. The major applications of this approach in radiation ther-apy are for the corrections of registration failures caused by various imaging artifacts resulting in, low image contrast, and non-correspondence situations where an object may not be imaged in both target and source images. Both synthetic and real patient data have been used to evaluate this hybrid method. We used contours mapping to validate the accuracy of this method on real patient image. Our studies demonstrated that this hybrid method could improve overall registra-tion accuracy with moderate overhead. In addition, we have also shown that the multi-step CSRBF registration proved to be more effective in handling large deformations while maintaining the smoothness of the transformation than origi-nal CSRBF.

Share and Cite:

S. Gao, Y. Zhang, J. Yang, C. Wang, L. Zhang, L. Court and L. Dong, "A Hybrid Algorithm to Address Ambiguities in Deformable Image Registration for Radiation Therapy," International Journal of Medical Physics, Clinical Engineering and Radiation Oncology, Vol. 1 No. 2, 2012, pp. 50-59. doi: 10.4236/ijmpcero.2012.12007.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Bharatha, A, Hirose, M, Hata, N, et al. Evaluation of three-dimensional finite element-based deformable registration of preand intraoperative prostate imaging. Med. Phys. 2001;28:2551-2560.
[2] Gao, S, Zhang, L, Wang, H, et al. A deformable image registration method to handle distended rectums in prostate cancer radiotherapy. Med. Phys. 2006;33:3304-3312.
[3] Lu, W, Chen, ML, Olivera, GH, Ruchala, KJ, Mackie, TR. Fast free-form deformable registration via calculus of variations. Phys Med Biol 2004;49: 3067-3087.
[4] Mackie, TR, Kapatoes, J, Ruchala, K, et al. Image guidance for precise conformal radiotherapy. International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics. 2003;56:89-105.
[5] Rietzel, E, Chen, GT, Choi, NC, Willet, CG. Four-dimensional image-based treatment planning: Target volume segmentation and dose calculation in the presence of respiratory motion. International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics, 2005;61:1535-1550.
[6] Sarrut, D, V. Boldea, S. Miguet, C. Ginestet. Simulation of four-dimensional CT images from deformable registration between inhale and exhale breath-hold CT scans. Med. Phys. 2006;33:605-617.
[7] Schreibmann, E, G. T. Chen, Xing, L. Image interpolation in 4D CT using a BSpline deformable registration model. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2006;64:1537-1550.
[8] Wang, H, Dong, L, Lii, MF, et al. Implementation and validation of a three-dimensional deformable registration algorithm for targeted prostate cancer radiotherapy. International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics 2005;61:725-735.
[9] Wang, H, Dong, L, O'Daniel, J, et al. Validation of an accelerated 'demons' algorithm for deformable image registration in radiation therapy. Phys. Med. Biol. 2005;50:2887-2905.
[10] Hill, DLG, Batchelor, PG, Holden, M, J., HD. Medical image registration. Phys. Med. Biol. 2001;46:R1-45.
[11] Rohr, K. Landmark-Based Image Analysis: Using Geo-metric and Intensity Models. Dordrecht, Boston: Kluwer Academic. 2001.
[12] Crum, WR, Griffin, LD, Hill, DL, Hawkes, DJ. Zen and the art of medical image registration: correspondence, homology, and quality. Neuroimage 2003;20:1425-1437.
[13] Fornefett, M, Rohr, K, Stiehl, HS. Radial basis functions with compact support for elastic registration of medical images. Image and Vision Computing 2001;19:87-96.
[14] Azar, A, Xu, C, Pennec, X, Ayache, N. An interactive hybrid non-rigid registration framework for 3D medical images. 3rd IEEE International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging: Nano to Macro; page: 824- 827 2006.
[15] Hartkens, T, Hill, DLG, Castellano-Smith, AD, et al. Using points and surfaces to improve voxel-based non-rigid registration. Lecture Notes in Computer Science; Vol. 2489, pp.565-572: springer. 2002.
[16] Johnson, HJ, Christensen, GE. Consistent landmark and intensity-based image registration. IEEE Trans. Medical Imaging 2002;21:450-461.
[17] Modersitzki, J. Numerical Methods for Image Registration: Oxford University Press. 2004.
[18] P. Cachier, J. F. Mangin, X. Pennec, et al. Multisubject Nonrigid Registration of Brain MRI Using Intensity and Geometric Features In: Viergever WNaM, editor. Fourth International Conference on Medical Image Computing and Computer-Assisted Intervention, Utrecht, The Netherlands: springer-Verlag. 2001;734-742.
[19] Christensen, GE, Rabbitt, RD, Miller, MI. Deformable templates using large deformation kinematics. IEEE Trans. Imag. Process. 1996;5:1435-1447.
[20] D'Agostino, E, Maes, F, Vandermeulen, D, Suetens, P. A viscous fluid model for multimodal nonrigid image registration using mutual information. Med. Image Anal. 2003;7:565-575.
[21] Foskey, M, Davis, B, Goyal, L, et al. Large deformation 3D image registration in image-guided radiation therapy. Phys. Med. Biol. 2005;50:5869-5892.
[22] Thirion, J. Image matching as a diffusion process: an analogy with Maxwell's demons. Medical Image Analysis 1998;2:243-260.
[23] Wendland, H. Piecewise polynomial, positive definite and compactly supported radial functions of minimal degree. Advances in Computational Mathematics 1995;4:389-396.
[24] Borgefors, G. On digital distance transforms in three dimensions. Computer Vision and Image Understanding 1996;64:368-376.
[25] Rosenfeld, A, Pfaltz, J. Distance functions in digital pictures. Pattern Recognit 1968;1:33-61.
[26] Joshi, SC, Miller, MI. Landmark matching via large de-formation diffeomorphisms. IEEE Trans. Image Process. 2000;9:1357-1370.
[27] Hajnal, JV, Hawkes, DJ, Hill, DLG, (eds). Medical Image Registration. Boca Raton: CRC Press. 2001.
[28] Bookstein, FL. Principal warps: thin-plate splines and the decomposition of deformations. IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 1989;11:567-585.
[29] Rohr, K, Stiehl, HS, Sprengel, R, Buzug, TM, Weese, J, Kuhn, MH. Landmark-based elastic registration using approximating thin-plate splines. IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 2001;20:526-534.
[30] Rohr, K, Fornefett, M, Stiehl, HS. Spline-based elastic image registration: integration of landmark errors and orientation attributes. Computer Vision & Image Under-standing 2003;90:153-168.
[31] Arad, N, Dyn, N, Reisfeld, D, Yeshurun, Y. Image warp-ing by radial basis functions: applications to facial expressions. CVGIP: Graphical Models and Image Processing 1994;56:161-172.
[32] Wachowiak, MP, X. Wang, A. Fenster, Peters, TM. Compact Support Radial Basis Functions for Soft Tissue Deformation. Proceedings of the 2004 IEEE International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging: From Nano to Macro, Arlington, VA, USA. 2004;1259-1262.
[33] Kohlrausch, J, Rohr, K, Stiehl, S. A new class of elastic body splines for nonrigid registration of medical Images. J. Math. Imaging Vision 2005;23:253–280.
[34] Pekar, V, Gladilin, E, Rohr, K. An adaptive irregular grid approach for 3D deformable image registration. Phys. Med. Biol. 2006;51:361–377.

Copyright © 2024 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.