How is the biological information arranged in genome?


The four nucleotides (bases), A. T. G and C were sophisticatedly arranged in the structural features in a single-strand of genomic DNA, 1) reverse-complement symmetry of base or base sequences, 2) bias of four bases, 3) multiple fractality of the distribution of each four bases depending on the distance in double logarithmic plot (power spectrum) of L (the distance of a base to the next base) vs. P(L) (the probability of the base-distribution at L), regardless species, forms, genome-sizes and GC-contents. In small genomes such as viruses and plasmids, the multiple fractality might be occasionally hard to distinguish clearly with the power-low-tail region (multi-fractal dimension) because of the low base numbers. In this review article, the author showed that 1) the structural features for the biologically active genomic DNA were observed all living cells including the organelle- and the viralgenome, 2) the potentiality of a new analytical method of the genome structure based on the appearance frequency, Sequence Spectrum Method (SSM) could be analyzed DNA, RNA and protein on genome, 3) the structural features of genome might be related the biological complexity. These findings might be useful extremely to understand the living cells, and the entire genome as a “field” of biological information should need to analyze.

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Takeda, M. (2012) How is the biological information arranged in genome?. American Journal of Molecular Biology, 2, 171-186. doi: 10.4236/ajmb.2012.23019.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


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