Automatic detection of pulse morphology patterns & cardiac risks


Analysis of arterial pulse waveforms is important for non-invasive diagnosis of cardiovascular functions. Large samples of IPG signal records of radial arterial pulse show presence of eight different types of shapes (morphological patterns) in the pulse waveforms. In this paper we present an efficient computational method for automatic identification of these morphological patterns. Our algorithm uses likelihood ratio of cumulative periodogram of pulse signals and some geometrical criteria. The algorithm is presented with necessary details on signal processing aspects. Results for a large sample of pulse records of adult Indian subjects show high accuracy of our algorithm in detecting pulse-morphology patterns. Variation of pulse-morphology with respect to time is also analyzed using this algorithm. We have identified some characteristic features of pulse-morphology variation in patients of certain cardiac problems, hypertension, and diabetes. These are found relevant and significant in terms of physiological interpretation of the associated shapes of pulse waveforms. Importance of these findings is highlighted along with discussion on overall scope of our study in automatic analysis of heart rate variability and in other applications for non-invasive prognosis/diagnosis.

Share and Cite:

Joshi, R. , Nawsupe, G. and Wangikar, S. (2012) Automatic detection of pulse morphology patterns & cardiac risks. Journal of Biomedical Science and Engineering, 5, 315-322. doi: 10.4236/jbise.2012.56041.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Brown, H., Kozlowski, R. and Davey, P. (1997) Physiology and pharmacology of the heart. Blackwell, Oxford.
[2] Joshi, A.J., Chandran, S., Jayaraman, V.K. and Kulkarni, B.D. (2007) Arterial pulse system: Modern methods for traditional Indian medicine. Proceedings of the 29th International Conference of IEEE Engineering in Medical & Biolology Society, Vancouver, 22-26 August 2007, 608-611.
[3] Joshi, R.R. (2004) A Biostatistical approach to ayurveda: Quantifying the tridosha. Journal of Alternate & Complementary Medicine, 10, 879-889.
[4] Joshi, R.R. (2005) Diagnostics using computational Nadi patterns. Mathematical and Computer Modeling, 41, 33- 47. doi:10.1016/j.mcm.2004.05.002
[5] Jindal, G.D., Ananthakrishnan, T.S., Mandlik, S.A., Sinha, V., Jain, R.K., Kini, A.R., Naik, M.A., Kataria, S.K., Mahajan, U.A. and Deshpande, A.K. (2003) Medical analyzer for the study of physiological variability and disease characterization. Technology Report, Bhaba Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai.
[6] Jindal, G.D., Ananthakrishnan, T.S., Rai, B.S., Madhyastha, M.N. and Jain, R.K. (2006) Plethysmographic techniques and applications in clinical medicine. Technology Report, Bhaba Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai.
[7] O’Ruke, M.F. (2004) Pulse waveform analysis and arterial stiffness: Realism can replace evangelism and skepticism. Journal of Hypertension, 22, 1633-1634.
[8] Takazawa, K., Kobayashi, H., Shindo, N., Tanaka, N. and Yamashina, A. (2007) Relationship between radial and central arterial pulse wave and evaluation of central arotic pressure using the radial arterial pulse wave. Hypertension Research, 30, 219-228. doi:10.1291/hypres.30.219
[9] Joshi, A.J., Chandran, S., Jayaraman, V.K. and Kulkarni, B.D. (2007) Nadi Tarangini: A pulse based diagnostic system. Proceedings of the 29th International Conference of IEEE Engineering in Medical & Biolology Society, Lyon, 22-26 August 2007, 2207-2210.
[10] Abhinav Sareen, M., Kumar, M., Santosh, J., Salhan, A. and Anand, S. (2008) Nadi Yantra: A robust system design to capture signals from the radial artery for noninvasive diagnosis. Proceedings of 2nd International Conference on Bioinformatics & Biomedical Engineering, Shanghai, 16-18 May 2008, 1387-1390.
[11] Abhinav Sareen, M., Kumar, M., Anand, S., Salhan, A. and Santosh, J. (2009) Nadi Yantra: A robust system design to capture signals from the radial artery for assessment of the autonomic nervous system non-invasively. Journal of Biomedical Science & Engineering, 2, 471- 479.
[12] Pichot, V., Gaspoz, J.M., Molliex, S., Antoniadis, A., Busso, T., Roche, F., Costes, F., Quintin, L., Lacour, J.R. and Barthelemy, J.C. (1999) Wavelet transform to quantify heart rate variability and to assess its instantaneous changes. Journal of Applied Physiology, 86, 1081-1091.
[13] Galinier, M., Pathak, A., Fourcade, J., Androdias, C., Curnier, D., Varnous, S., Boveda, S., Massabuau, P., Fauvel, M., Senard, J.M. and Bounhoure, J.P. (2000) Depressed low frequency power of heart rate variability as an independent predictor of sudden death in chronic heart failure. European Heart Journal, 21, 475-482. doi:10.1053/euhj.1999.1875
[14] Grigioni, M., Carotti, A., Del Gaudio, C., Morbiducci, U., Albanese, S.B. and D’Avenio, G. (2006) Multiresolution analysis of heart rate variability as investigational tool in experimental fetal cardiac surgery. Annals of Biomedical Engineering, 34, 799-809. doi:10.1007/s10439-006-9084-x
[15] Huang, C.-M., Chang, H.-C., Kao, S.-T., Li, T-C., Wei, C.-C., Chen, C., Liao, Y.-T. and Chen, F.-J. (2011) Radial pressure pulse and heart rate variability in heat- and cold-stressed humans. Evidence Based Complementary & Alternate Medicine, 14, 1-9.
[16] Wang, B. and Xiang, J. (1998) Detecting system and power spectral analysis of pulse signals of human body. 4th International Conference on Signal Processing Proceedings, Beijing, 12-16 October 1998, 1646-1649.
[17] De Melis, M., Morbiducci, U., Rietzschel, E.R., De Buy- zere, M., Qasem, A., Van Bortel, L., Claessens, T., Mon- tevecchi, F.M., Avolio, A. and Segers, P. (2009) Blood pressure waveform analysis by means of wavelet transform. Medical & Biological Engineering & Computting, 47,165-173. doi:10.1007/s11517-008-0397-9
[18] Hashimoto, J., Imai, Y. and O’Rouke, M.F. (2007) Indices of pulse wave analysis are better predictors of left ventricular mass reduction than cuff pressure. American Journal of Hypertension, 20, 378-384. doi:10.1016/j.amjhyper.2006.09.019
[19] Joshi, R.R., Wangikar, S.W. and Nawsupe, G. (2008) Instrumentation Based Pulse Diagnosis. DSS Technical Report, Ministry of Communication & Information Technology, New Delhi.
[20] Diggle, P. and Fisher, N.I. (1991). Nonparametric comparison of cumulative periodograms. Applied Statistics, 40, 423-434. doi:10.2307/2347522
[21] Xu, L., Zhang, D., Wang, K., Li, N. and Wang, X. (2007) Baseline wander correction in pulse waveforms using wavelet-based cascaded adaptive filter. Computers in Biology & Medicine, 37, 716-731. doi:10.1016/j.compbiomed.2006.06.014
[22] Nawsupe, G. and Joshi, R.R. (2011) Modified wave-let-based technique for baseline drift removal and diagnostic scope of spectral energy of radial pulse signal. International Journal of Biomedical Engineering and Technology, 6, 1-13. doi:10.1504/IJBET.2011.040450
[23] Karamchandani, S., Merchant, S.N., Desai, U.B. and Jindal, G.D. (2010) Application of crisp and fuzzy clustering algorithms for identification of hidden patterns from plethysmographic observations on the radial pulse. IEEE Engineering in Medical & Biolology Society, 1, 3978-3981.
[24] Pan, J. and Tompkins, W.A. (1985) Real-time QRS detection algorithm. IEEE Transactions in Biomedical Engineering, 32, 230-237. doi:10.1109/TBME.1985.325532
[25] Thompson, J.D., Higgins, D.G. and Gibson, T.J. (1994) CLUSTAL W: Improving the sensitivity of progressive multiple sequence alignment through sequence weighting, position specific gap penalties and weight matrix choice. Computer Applications in Biological Sciences, 10, 19-29.
[26] Chou, K.C. and Shen, H.B. (2007) Review: Recent progresses in protein subcellular location prediction. Analytical Biochemistry, 370, 1-16. doi:10.1016/j.ab.2007.07.006
[27] Du, Q.S., Huang, R.B., Wang, S.Q. and Chou, K.C. (2010) Designing inhibitors of M2 proton channel against H1N1 swine influenza virus. PLoS One, 5, e9388. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0009388

Copyright © 2024 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.