A Study on the Interrelationship between Renal Calculi, Hormonal Abnormalities and Urinary Tract Infections in Iraqi Patients


Objective: The main objective of the present study is to assess the interrelationship between renal calculi, selected ions, thyroid and parathyroid hormones and urinary tract infections. Methods: This study was carried out on 150 patients attended Tikrit Teaching Hospital from 2008 to 2009. Stones and serum ions were analyzed utilizing relevant Biolab Company kits (France). Thyroid hormones were determined using ELISA microwells kit (Accuubind, USA) Parathyroid hormone was estimated by active I-PTH ELISA (DSL, USA).Urine cultures were done utilizing cystine-lactose- electrolyte deficient (CLED) medium. Various isolated pathogens were conventionally identified. Results: Urine cultures revealed that 42% of the patients had urinary tract infections particularly with Enterobacteriaceae. 68% of the stones tested were calcium oxalate. Infective and noninfective stones were classified. Calcium ion was more elevated in patients examined. Hypothyroidism was prevalent but parathyroid hormone (PTH) was elevated among 14 patients only. Conclusions: The frequency of UTI was higher among urolithiasis patients and the common causative agents were Gram negative bacteria. Renal stones of calcium origin were predominant. Hormonal abnormalities were seen. 15 patients with hyperthyroidism revealed hypercalcemia and hypercalciuria.

Share and Cite:

M. M. Al-Jebouri and N. Atalah, "A Study on the Interrelationship between Renal Calculi, Hormonal Abnormalities and Urinary Tract Infections in Iraqi Patients," Open Journal of Urology, Vol. 2 No. 1, 2012, pp. 6-10. doi: 10.4236/oju.2012.21002.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] K. El-Shaid, H. Mughal and K. Kapoor, “Epidemiological Profile Mineral Metabolic Pattern and Crystallographic Analysis of Urolithiasis in Kuwait,” European Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 13, No. 2, 1997, pp. 229-34. doi:10.1023/A:1007346727944
[2] L. Marshal and M. D. Stollre, “Urinary Stone Disease,” In: E. D. Tanagho and J. W. Aninch, Eds., Smith’s General Urology, Lange Medical Books/McGraw-Hill Medical Publishing Division, New York, 2004, pp. 268-271.
[3] M. M. Al-Jebouri and H. Al-Dobony, “Incidence of Asymptomatic Bacteriuria among Secondary School Girls in Mosul, Iraq,” Iraqi Medical Journal, Vol. 8, No. 2, 1985, pp. 112-117.
[4] T. Al-Momani, “Microbiological Study of Urinary Tract Infection in Children at Princess Haya Hospital in South Jordan,” Middle East Journal of Family Medicine, Vol. 14, No. 2, 2006, pp. 15-18.
[5] N. Sen, A. Matthias and J. P. Raj, “Role of Critical Care in Urological Sepsis,” Indian Journal of Urology, Vol. 22, No. 2, 2006, pp. 105-112. doi:10.4103/0970-1591.26562
[6] M. M. Al-Jebouri “Medical Bacteriology,” Mosul University Press, Mosul, 1990.
[7] M. S. Parmer, “Kidney Stones,” British Medical Journal, Vol. 328, No. 4, 2004, pp. 1420-1424. doi:10.1136/bmj.328.7453.1420
[8] N. Ciftcioglu, M. Bjorklund, K. Kuorikoski, et al., “Nanobacter: An Infectious Cause for Kidney Stone Formation,” Kidney International, Vol. 56, No. 5, 1999, pp. 1893-1898. doi:10.1046/j.1523-1755.1999.00755.x
[9] M. T. Harrison, R. M. Harden and W. D. Alexander, “Some Effects of Parathyroid Hormone in Thyrotoxicosis,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, Vol. 24, No. 2, 1964, pp. 214-217. doi:10.1210/jcem-24-2-214
[10] J. M. Suh, J. J. Corona and J. M. Monchik, “Primary Hyperparathyroidism: Is There an Increased Prevalence of Renal Stone Disease?” American Journal of Roentgenology, Vol. 191, No. 3, 2008, pp. 908-911. doi:10.2214/AJR.07.3160
[11] W. G. Robertson, S. Germani and G. Vespasiani, “Stones and Urinary Tract Infections,” Urolology and Infection, Vol. 79, Suppl. 1, 2007, pp. 32-36.
[12] S. T. Cowan, “Cown and Steel’s Manual for Identification of Medical Bacteria,” Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1976.
[13] N. J. Castylan, “Nonparametric Statistics,” McGrowthat, New York, 1989.
[14] O. A. H. Al-Jebouri, “The Relationship between Urinary Calculi Types and Urinary Tract Infections among Patients in Tikrit District,” M.Sc. Thesis, University of Tikrit, Tikrit, 2006.
[15] M. M. Al-Jebouri, “The Effect of Sublethal Concentrations of Disinfectants on Antibiotic-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus,” Journal of Hospital Infection, Vol. 14, No. 4, 1989, pp. 14-19.
[16] A. J. Howard, J. T. Magee, K. A. Fitzgerald, et al., “Factors Associated with Antibiotics Resistance in Coliforms from Community UTI in Wales,” Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, Vol. 47, No. 3, 2001, pp. 305-313. doi:10.1093/jac/47.3.305
[17] M. Farooq, M. C. H. Anwaar, M. Albukhari, et al., “Urinary Calculi; Biochemical Profile Stones Removed from Urinary Tract,” Professional Medical Journal, Vol. 14, 2007, pp. 6-10.
[18] P. B. Cooke, J. R. Nassim and J. Collins, “The Effect of Thyrotoxicosis upon the Metabolism of Calcium, Phosphorous and Nitrogen,” Quarterly Journal of Medicine, Vol. 28, No. 4, 1959, p. 505.
[19] E. R. Yendt, “Renal Calculi,” Canadian Medical Journal, Vol. 102, No. 19, 1970, pp. 479-489.
[20] M. Fuss, T. Pepersack, J. Corvilain, et al., “Infrequency of Primary Hyperparathyroidism in Renal Stone Formers,” British Journal of Urology, Vol. 62, No. 1, 1988, p. 4. doi:10.1111/j.1464-410X.1988.tb04254.x
[21] R. P. Holmes, H. O. Goodman and D. G. Assimos, “Contribution of Dietary Oxalate to Urinary Oxalate Excretion,” Kidney International, Vol. 59, No. 1, 2001, pp. 270- 276. doi:10.1046/j.1523-1755.2001.00488.x
[22] S. Corbetta, A. Baccarelli, A. Aroldi, et al., “Risk Factors Associated to Kidney Stones in Primary Hyperparathyroidism,” Journal of Endocrinology Investigation, Vol. 28, No. 2, 2005, pp. 122-128.
[23] L. Hall-Stoodley, J. W. Costerton and P. Stoodley, “Bacterial Biofilms: From Natural Environment to Infectious Disease,” Nature Reviews Microbiology, Vol. 2, No. 2, 2004, pp. 95-108. doi:10.1038/nrmicro821

Copyright © 2024 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.