Indian Anti-Malaria OMARIA Is Effective Against African Drug Resistant P. falciparum Field Isolates and Laboratory Strains; without Toxicity


OMARIA which is used to treat malaria in Odisa province, India, was investigated in Africa. The in-vitro anti-malarial activity of OMARIA was tested on P. falciparum strains FCB (chloroquine-resistant) and 3D7 (chloroquine-sensitive) and on fresh clinical isolates from Gabon, using the DELI method. Host cell toxicity was analysed with the MTT test. Interesting activity was observed. Inhibition concentrations (IC50) were 20.6 ± 5.2 μg/ml and 14.1 ± 4.3μg/ml respectively on FCB and 3D7 strains. On clinical isolates, the mean of IC50 was 10.65 ± 4.8μg/ml. OMARIA is highly potent against all field isolates tested by us (Gabon includes Pfmdr1 N86). Lethal dose on Vero cells being 165 ± 10.7μg/ml indicate a selective index of 13 for FCB, i.e., non-toxic. Data substantiates scientific rationale for use of OMARIA. This information and such understanding can be used in searching African phyto parables (for use in Africa with similar results as in India) and in new drug design. With Indian assistance, Punica granatum can also be cultivated in Central Africa, and OMARIA can be made, with an aim to Fight Malaria at Home.

Share and Cite:

J. Lekana-Douki, D. Bhattacharya, R. Zatra and F. Toure-Ndouo, "Indian Anti-Malaria OMARIA Is Effective Against African Drug Resistant P. falciparum Field Isolates and Laboratory Strains; without Toxicity," International Journal of Clinical Medicine, Vol. 3 No. 1, 2012, pp. 1-8. doi: 10.4236/ijcm.2012.31001.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] WHO, “Global Malaria Report,” 2010.
[2] P. K. Loren Veronic, “Malaria Vaccine: Looking Back and Lessons Learnt,” Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine, Vol. 1, 2011, pp. 78-79. doi:10.1016/S2221-1691(11)
[3] S.Turschner and T. Efferth, “Drug Resistance in Plasmodium: Natural Products in the Fight against Malaria,” Mini Review in Medicical Chemistry, Vol. 9, No. 2, 2009, pp. 206-214. doi:10.2174/138955709787316074
[4] S. C. Chhabra, B. L. A. Mahunnah and E. N. Mshiu, “Plants Used in Traditional Medicine in Eastern Tanzania. I. Pteridophytes and Angiosperms (Acanthaceae to Canellaceae),” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, Vol. 21, No. 3, 1987, pp. 253-277. doi:10.1016/0378-8741(87)90103-6
[5] S. Schwikkard and F. R. van Heerden, “Antimalarial Activity of Plant Metabolites,” Natural Product Reports, Vol. 19, No. 6, 2002, pp. 675-692. doi:10.1039/b008980j
[6] B. K. S. Yeung, B. Zou, M. Rottmann, et al., “Spirotetrahydro β-Carbolines (Spiroindolones): A New Class of Potent and Orally Efficacious Compounds for the Treatment of Malaria,” Journal of Medicianl Chemistry, Vol. 53, No. 14, 2010, pp. 5155-5164. doi:10.1021/jm100410f
[7] BBC, “India Claims Herbal Malaria Cure,” 24 October 2000.
[8] E. Times, “Herbal Anti-Malaria Drug on Anvil, News Report,” India’s National Circulation-News Paper, Calcutta, 25 October 2000, p. 6.
[9] P. Express, “Fortnightly Insight for Pharma Professionals,” Pharma Express, Bombay, 2006, pp. 1-15.
[10] D. Bhattacharya, “Why Fight Malaria?” DRUG ONE (Pharma Tabloid), Vol. 2, 2007, pp. 30-36.
[11] A. Viera, A. Maria, N. Elena, A. Jan and H. Henrieta, “Costs Analysis of the Treatment of Imported Malaria,” Malaria Journal, Vol. 11, No. 1, 2012. doi:10.1186/1475-2875-11-1
[12] D. Bhattacharya, “Fight Malaria at Home: Therapeutic & Prophylaxis Clinical Data,” Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Disease, Vol. 1, No. 2, 2011, pp. 142-149.
[13] M. Dell’Agli, G. V. Galli, Y. Corbett, D. Taramelli, L. Lucantoni, A. Habluetzel, O. Maschi, D.Caruso, F. Giavarini, S. Romeo, D. Bhattacharya and E. Bosisio, “Antiplasmodial Activity of Punica granatum L. Fruit Rind,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, Vol. 125, No. 2, 2009, pp. 279-285. doi:10.1016/j.jep.2009.06.025
[14] M. Dell’Agli, G. V. Galli, M. Bulgari, N. Basilico, S. Romeo, D. Bhattacharya, D. Taramelli and E. Bosisio, “Ellagitannins of the Fruit Rind of Pomegranate (Punica granatum) Antagonize in Vitro the Host Inflammatory Response Mechanisms Involved in the Onset of Malaria,” Malaria Journal, Vol. 9, No. 1, 2010, p. 208. doi:10.1186/1475-2875-9-208
[15] D. Bhattacharya, “Punica Granatum’s Dermis Indicates Anti-Malarial Therapeutics & Prophylaxis,” 4th Pan African Malaria Conference, Multilateral Initiative on Malaria, Yaounde, 13-18 November 2005, pp. 195-196.
[16] M. Prato and G. Giribaldi, “Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 and Haemozoin: Wedding Rings for Human Host and Plasmodium falciparum Parasite in Complicated Malaria,” Journal of Tropical Medicine, 2011, Article ID: 628435. doi:10.1155/2011/628435
[17] P. Deloron, J. Mayombo, A. Le Cardinal, J. Mezui-Me-Ndong, C. Bruzi-Baert, F. Lekoulou amd N. Elissa, “Sulfadoxine-Pyrimethamine for the Treatment of Plasmodium falciparum Malaria in Gabonese Children,” Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, Vol. 94, No. 2, 2000, pp. 188-190. doi:10.1016/S0035-9203(00)90272-4
[18] J. M. Ndong, C. Atteke, A. Aubouy, M. Bakary, J. Lebibi and P. Deloron, “In Vitro Activity of Chloroquine, Quinine, Mefloquine and Halofantrine against Gabonese Isolates of Plasmodium falciparum,” Tropical Medicine & International Health, Vol. 8, No. 1, 2003, pp. 25-29. doi:10.1046/j.1365-3156.2003.00967.x
[19] J. B. Lekana-Douki, S. D. Boutamba, R. Zatra, S. E. Edou, H. Ekomy, U. Bisvigou and F. S. Toure-Ndouo, “Increased Prevalence of the Plasmodium falciparum Pfmdr1 86N Genotype among Field Isolates from Franceville, Gabon after Replacement of Chloroquine by Artemether-Lumefantrine and Artesunate-Mefloquine,” Infection, Genetics and Evolution, Vol. 11, No. 2, 2011, pp. 512-517.
[20] N. Dhingra, P. Jha, V. P. Sharma, A. A. Cohen, R. M. Jotkar, P. S. Rodriguez, D. G. Bassani, W. Suraweera, R. Laxminarayan and R. Peto, “Adult and Child Malaria Mortality in India: A Nationally Representative Mortality Survey,” Lancet, Vol. 376, No. 9754, 2010, pp. 1768-1774. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(10)60831-8
[21] K. M. Prashant, J. Hema, V. Neena, K. S. Surya, E. Alex, M. B. Rajendra, C. S. Harish, L. S. Patrick, P. D. Aditya, K. B. Virendra, “Mutant pfcrt ‘SVMNT’ Haplotype and Wild Type Pfmdr1 ‘N86’ Are Endemic in Plasmodium vivax Dominated Areas of India under High Chloroquine Exposure,” Malaria Journal, Vol. 11, No. 16, 2012. doi:10.1186/1475-2875-11-16
[22] W. Trager and J. B. Jensen, “Human Malaria Parasites in Continuous Culture, ” Science, Vol. 193, No. 4254, 1976, pp. 673-675. doi:10.1126/science.781840
[23] J. B. Douki, Y. Sterkers, C. Lepolard, B. Traore, F. T. Costa, A. Scherf and J. Gysin, “Adhesion of Normal and Plasmodium falciparum Ring-Infected Erythrocytes to Endothelial Cells and the Placenta Involves the Rhoptry-Derived Ring Surface Protein-2,” Blood, Vol. 101, No. 12, 2003, pp. 5025-5032. doi:10.1182/blood-2002-12-3710
[24] T. Planche, S. Krishna, M. Kombila, K. Engel, J. F. Faucher, E. Ngou-Milama and P. G. Kremsner, “Comparison of Methods for the Rapid Laboratory Assessment of Children with Malaria,” The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, Vol. 65, No. 5, 2001, pp. 599-602.
[25] P. Druilhe, A. Moreno, C. Blanc, P. H. Brasseur and P. Jacquier, “A Colorimetric in Vitro Drug Sensitivity Assay for Plasmodium falciparum Based on a Highly Sensitive Double-Site Lactate Dehydrogenase Antigen-Capture Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay,” The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, Vol. 64, No. 5-6, 2001, pp. 233-241.
[26] T. Mosmann, “Rapid Colorimetric Assay for Cellular Growth and Survival: Application to Proliferation and Cytotoxicity Assays,” Journal of Immunological Methods, Vol. 62, No. 1-2, 1983, pp. 55-63. doi:10.1016/0022-1759(83)90303-4
[27] Atharva Veda Samhita, “Medicine Chapter as Cited in P. Sen, 1907,” Journal of the Asiatic Society, 1907, pp. 11-12.
[28] C. Samhita, “c.4th A.D., of Agnivesa,” B. Tripathy, Ed. Chaukhamba Surabharati Prakashan, Varanasi, 1973, p. 2.
[29] D. G. Vigyana, “Part II, (Sanskrit; Full Book),” A. P. Sharma, Ed., Chowkhamba Bharat Academy, Varanasi, 1983.
[30] Z. D. Cidian, “Grand Dictionary of Chinese Traditional Medicine,” 2nd Edition, Shanghai Science & Technology Press, Shanghai, 2005.
[31] R. P. Rastogi, B. N. Mehrotra, S. Sinha, M. Srivastava and B. Bhusan, “Compendium of Indian Medicinal Plants,” Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow, 1986.
[32] A. F. Valdes, J. M. Martinez, R. S. Lizama, Y. G. Gaiten, D. A. Rodriguez and J. A. Payrol, “In Vitro Antimalarial Activity and Cytotoxicity of Some Selected Cuban Medicinal Plants,” Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo, Vol. 52, No. 4, 2010, pp. 197-201. doi:10.1590/S0036-46652010000400006
[33] S. M. Taylor, J. J. Juliano and S. R. Meshnick, “Artemisinin Resistance in Plasmodium falciparum Malaria,” The New England Journal of Medicine, Vol. 361, No. 18, 2009, pp. 455-467

Copyright © 2024 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.