The relationship between child maltreatment and axis I mental disorders: A summary of the published literature from 2006 to 2010
Tracie O. Afifi
DOI: 10.4236/ojpsych.2012.21004   PDF    HTML   XML   6,052 Downloads   12,302 Views   Citations


Research has indicated that child maltreatment is associated with an increased likelihood of mental disorders and suicidal ideation and attempts that continues into adulthood. The purpose of this paper is to provide a synopsis of the recent published research from 2006 to 2010 on the association between child maltreatment and Axis I mental disorders and suicidal ideation and attempts. The databases MEDLINE and PsycINFO were searched for relevant and high quality citations up to October 2010. The results indicated that all types of child maltreatment examined are linked to reduced mental health. A general noted trend in the literature is that earlier age of onset of child maltreatment is associated with poorer mental health outcomes. Sex differences do exist with some disorders being more likely among males (e.g., anti-social behaviour) and other more likely among females (e.g., depression, PTSD, substance use disorders) following child maltreatment.

Share and Cite:

Afifi, T. (2012) The relationship between child maltreatment and axis I mental disorders: A summary of the published literature from 2006 to 2010. Open Journal of Psychiatry, 2, 21-32. doi: 10.4236/ojpsych.2012.21004.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Afifi, T.O., Brownridge, D.A., Cox, B.J. and Sareen, J. (2006) Physical punishment, childhood abuse, and psychiatric disorders. Child Abuse & Neglect, 30, 1093-1103. doi:10.1016/j.chiabu.2006.04.006
[2] Chen, L.P., Murad, H., Paras, M.L., Colbenson, K.M., Sattler, A.L., Goranson, E.N., Elamin, M.B., Seime, R.J., Shinozaki, G., Prokop, L.J. and Zirakzadeh, A. (2010) Sexual abuse and lifetime diagnosis of psychiatric disorders: Systematic review and meta-analysis. Mayo Clinic Proceedings, 85, 618-629. doi:10.4065/mcp.2009.0583
[3] Kessler, R.C., Davis, C.G. and Kendler, K.S., (1997) Childhood adversity and adult psychiatric disorder in the US National Comorbidity Survey, Psychological Medicine, 27, 1101-1119. doi:10.1017/S0033291797005588
[4] MacMillan, H.L., Fleming, J.E., Streiner, D.L., Lin, E., Boyle, M.H., Jamieson, E., Duku, E.K., Walsh, C.A., Wong, M.Y.-Y. and Beardslee, W.R. (2001) Childhood abuse and lifetime psychopathology in a community sample. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 158, 1878-1883. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.158.11.1878
[5] Maniglio, R. (2010) Child sexual abuse in the etiology of depression: A systematic review of reviews. Depress Anxiety, 27, 631-642. doi:10.1002/da.20687
[6] American Psychiatric Association, (1994) Diagnostic & statistical manual for mental disorders (DSM). American Psychiatric Press, Inc, Washington, DC.
[7] Afifi, T.O., Boman, J., Fleisher, W. and Sareen, J. (2009) The relationship between child abuse, parental divorce, and lifetime mental disorders and suicidality in a nationally representative adult sample. Child Abuse & Neglect, 33, 139-147. doi:10.1016/j.chiabu.2008.12.009
[8] Buzi, R.S. Weinman, M.L. and Smith, P.B. (2007) The relationship between adolescent depression and a history of sexual abuse, Adolescence, 42, 679-688.
[9] Cutajar, M.C., Mullen, P.E., Ogloff, J.R.P., Thomas, S.D., Wells, D.L. and Saptaro, J. (2010) Psychopathology in a large cohort of sexually abused children followed up to 43 years. Child Abuse & Neglect, 34, 813-822.
[10] Fergusson, D.M., Boden, J.M. and Horwood, L.J. (2008) Exposure to childhood sexual and physical abuse and adjustment in early adulthood. Child Abuse & Neglect, 32, 607-619. doi:10.1016/j.chiabu.2006.12.018
[11] Gibb, B.E., Chelminski, I. and Zimmerman, M. (2007) Childhood emotional, physical, and sexual abuse, and diagnosis of depressive and anxiety disorders in adult psychiatric outpatients. Depress Anxiety, 24, 256-263. doi:10.1002/da.20238
[12] Hussey, J.M., Chang, J.J. and Kotch, J.B. (2006) Child maltreatment in the United States: Prevalence, risk factors, and adolescent health consequences. Pediatrics, 118, 933-942. doi:10.1542/peds.2005-2452
[13] Jonas, S., Bebbington, P., McManus, S., Meltzer, H., Jenkins, R., Kuipers, E., Cooper, C., King, M. and Brugha, T. (2010) Sexual abuse and psychiatric disorder in England: Results from the 2007 Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey. Psychological Medicine, 41, 709-719.
[14] Massie, H. and Szajnberg, N. (2006) My life is a longing: Child abuse and its adult sequelae. Results of the brody longitudinal study from birth to age 30. International Journal of Psychoanalysis, 87, 471-496.
[15] Scott, K.M., Smith, D.R. and Ellis, P.M. (2010) Prospectively ascertained child maltreatment and its association with DSM-IV mental disorders in young adults. Archives of General Psychiatry, 67, 712-719. doi:10.1001/archgenpsychiatry.2010.71
[16] Springer, K.W., Sheridan, J., Kuo, D. and Carnes, M. (2007) Long-term physical and mental health consequences of childhood physical abuse: Results from a large population-based sample of men and women. Child Abuse & Neglect, 31, 517-530. doi:10.1016/j.chiabu.2007.01.003
[17] Widom, C.S., DuMont, K.A. and Czaja, S.J. (2007) A prospective investigation of major depressive disorder and comorbidity in abused and neglected children grown up. Archives of General Psychiatry, 64, 49-56. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.64.1.49
[18] Wright, M.O., Crawford, E. and Del Castillo, D. (2009) Childhood emotional maltreatment and later psychological distress among college students: The mediating role of maladaptive schemas. Child Abuse & Neglect, 33, 59-68. doi:10.1016/j.chiabu.2008.12.007
[19] Wiersma, J.E., Hovens, J.G.F.M., van Oppen, P. Giltay, E.J., van Schaik, D.J.F., Beekman, A.T.F. and Penninx, B.W.J.H. (2009) The importance of childhood traum and childhood life events for chronicity of depression in adults, Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 70, 983-989. doi:10.4088/JCP.08m04521
[20] Roustit, C., Renahy, E., Guernec, G., Lesieur, S., Parizot, I. and Chauvin, P. (2009) Exposure to interparental violence and psychosocial maladjustment in the adult life course: Advocacy for early prevention. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 63, 563-568. doi:10.1136/jech.2008.077750
[21] Russell, D., Springer, K.W. and Greenfield, E.A. (2010) Witnessing domestic abuse in childhood as an independent risk factor for depressive symptoms in young adulthood. Child Abuse & Neglect, 34, 453. doi:10.1016/j.chiabu.2009.10.004
[22] Hovens, J.G.F.M., Wiersma, J.E., Giltay, E.J., van Oppen, P., Spinhoven, P., Penninx, B.W.J.H. and Zitman, F.G. (2010) Childhood life events and childhood trauma in adult patients with depressive, anxiety, and comorbid disorders vs. controls, Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 122, 66-74. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0447.2009.01491.x
[23] Spinhoven, P., Elzinga, B.M., Hovens, J.G.F.M., Roelofs, K., Zitman, F.G., van Oppen, P. and Penninx, B.W.J.H. (2010) The specificity of childhood adversities and negative life events across the life span to anxiety and depressive disorders. Journal of Affective Disorders, 126, 103-112. doi:10.1016/j.jad.2010.02.132
[24] Arata, C.M., Langhinrichsen-Rohling, J., Bowers, D. and O’Brien, N. (2007) Differential correlates of multi-type maltreatment among urban youth. Child Abuse & Neglect, 31, 393-415. doi:10.1016/j.chiabu.2006.09.006
[25] Kaplow, J.B. and Widom, C.S. (2007) Age of onset of child maltreatment predicts long-term mental health outcomes. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 116, 176-187. doi:10.1037/0021-843X.116.1.176
[26] Schoedl, A.F., Costa, M.C.P., Mari, J.J., Mello, M.F., Tyrka, A.R., Carpenter, L.L. and Price, L.H. (2010) The clinical correlates of reported childhood sexual abuse: An association between age at trauma onset and severity of depression and PTSD in adults, Journal of Child Sexual Abuse, 19, 156-170. doi:10.1080/10538711003615038
[27] Fletcher, J.M. (2009) Childhood mistreatment and adolescent and young adult depression. Social Science & Medicine, 68, 799-806. doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2008.12.005
[28] Nicholas, K.B. and Rasmussen, E.H. (2006) Childhood abusive and supportive experiences, inter-parental violence, and parental alcohol use: Prediction of young adult depressive symptoms and aggression. Journal of Family Violence, 21, 43-61. doi:10.1007/s10896-005-9001-3
[29] Hebert, M., Parent, N., Daigneault, I.V. and Tourigny, M. (2006) A typological analysis of behavioural profiles of sexually abused children. Child Maltreatment, 11, 203-216. doi:10.1177/1077559506287866
[30] Cougle, J.R., Timpano, K.R., Sachs-Ericsson, N., Keough, M.E. and Riccardi, C.J. (2010) Examining the unique relationships between anxiety disorders and childhood physical and sexual abuse in the National Comorbidity Survey-Replication. Psychiatry Research, 177, 150-155. doi:10.1016/j.psychres.2009.03.008
[31] Simon, N.M., Herlands, N.N., Marks, E.H., Mancini, C., Letamendi, A., Li, Z., Pollack, M.H., Van Ameringen, M.D. and Stein, M.B. (2009) Childhood maltreatment linked to greater symptom severity and poorer quality of life and function in social anxiety disorder. Depress Anxiety, 26, 1027-1032. doi:10.1002/da.20604
[32] Caspi, A., Vishne, T., Sasson, Y., Gross, R., Livne, A. and Zohar, J. (2008) Relationship between childhood sexual abuse and obsessive-compulsive disorder: Case control study. Israel Journal of Psychiatry and Related Sciences, 45, 177-182.
[33] Zahradnik, M., Stewart, S.H., O’Connor, R.M., Stevens, D., Ungar, M. and Wekerle, C. (2010) Resilience moderates the relationship between exposure to violence and posttraumatic reexperiencing in Mi’kmaq youth. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 8, 408-420. doi:10.1007/s11469-009-9228-y
[34] Roberts, A.L., Gilman, S.E., Breslau, N. and Koenen, K.C. (2010) Race/ethnic differences in exposure to traumatic events, development of post-traumatic stress disorder, and treatment-seeking for post-traumatic stress disorder in the United States. Psychological Medicine, 41, 71-83.
[35] Afifi, T.O., Enns, M.W., Cox, B.J., Asmundson, G.J.G., Stein, M.B. and Sareen, J. (2008) Population attributable fractions of psychiatric disorders and suicidal ideation and attempts associated with adverse childhood events in the general population. American Journal of Public Health, 98, 946-952. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2007.120253
[36] Mathews, C.A., Kaur, N. and Stein, M.B. (2008) Childhood trauma and obsessive-compulsive symptoms. Depress Anxiety, 25, 742-751. doi:10.1002/da.20316
[37] Bernard-Bonnin, A.-C., Hebert, M., Daigneault, I.V. and Allard-Dansereau, C. (2008) Disclosure of sexual abuse, and personal and familial factors as predictors of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms in school-aged girls. Paediatric Child Health, 13, 479-486.
[38] Sullivan, T.P., Fehon, D.C., Andres-Hyman, R.C., Lipschitz, D.S. and Grilo, C. M. (2006) Differntial relationships of childhood abuse and neglect subtypes to PTSD symptom clusters among adolescent inpatients. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 19, 229-239. doi:10.1002/jts.20092
[39] Luthra, R., Abramovitz, R., Greenberg, R., Schoor, A., Newcorn, J., Schmeidler, J., Levine, P., Nomura, Y. and Chemtob, C.M. (2009) Relationship between type of traumatic exposure and posttraumatic stress disorder among urban children and adolescents. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 24, 1919-1927. doi:10.1177/0886260508325494
[40] Vranceanu, A.-M., Hobfoll, S.E. and Johnson, R.J. (2007) Child multi-type maltreatment and associated depression and PTSD symptoms: The role of social support and stress. Child Abuse & Neglect, 31, 71-84. doi:10.1016/j.chiabu.2006.04.010
[41] Afifi, T.O., Asmundson, G.J.G. and Sareen, J. (2009) Epidemiology of traumatic events and post-traumatic stress disorder, In: Nutt, D.J., Stein, M.B. and Zohar J. Eds., Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, Informa Healthcare, Inc., New York.
[42] Koenen K.C. and Widom, C.S. (2009) A prospective study of sex differences in the lifetime risk of posttraumatic stress disorder among abused and neglected children grown up. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 22, 566-574.
[43] Brewerton, T.D. (2007) Eating disorders, trauma, and comorbidity: Focus on PTSD. Eating Disorders, 15, 285-304. doi:10.1080/10640260701454311
[44] Messman-Moore, T.L. and Garrigus, A.S. (2007) The association of child abuse and eating disorder symptomatology: The importance of multiple forms of abuse and revictimization. Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment and Trauma, 14, 51-72. doi:10.1300/J146v14n03_04
[45] Fosse G.K. and Holen, A. (2006) Childhood maltreatment in adult female psychiatric outpatients with eating disorders. Eating Behaviors, 7, 404-409. doi:10.1016/j.eatbeh.2005.12.006
[46] Kennedy, M.A., Ip, K., Samra, J. and Gorzalka, B.B. (2007) The role of childhood emotional abuse in disordered eating. Journal of Emotional Abuse, 7, 17-36. doi:10.1300/J135v07n01_02
[47] Wonderlich, S.A., Rosenfedt, S., Crosby, R.D., Mitchell, J.E., Engel, S.C., Smyth, J. and Miltenberger, R. (2007) The effects of childhood trauma on daily mood lability and comorbid psychopathology in bulimia nervosa, Journal of Traumatic Stress, 20, 77-87. doi:10.1002/jts.20184
[48] Gerke, C.K., Mazzeo, S.E. and Kliewer, W. (2006) The role of depression and dissociation in the relationship between childhood trauma and bulimic symptoms among ethnically diverse female undergraduates. Child Abuse & Neglect, 30, 1161-1172. doi:10.1016/j.chiabu.2006.03.010
[49] Sanci, L., Coffey, C., Olsson, C., Reid, S., Carlin, J.B. and Patton, G. (2008) Childhood sexual abuse and eating disorders in females. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, 162, 261-267. doi:10.1001/archpediatrics.2007.58
[50] Murray, J. and Farrington, D. P. (2010) Risk factors for conduct disorder and deliquency: Key findings from longitudinal studies. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 55, 633-642.
[51] Schilling, E.A., Aseltine, R.H., Jr. and Gore, S. (2007) Adverse childhood experiences and mental health in young adults: A longitudinal survey. BioMed Central Public Health, 7, 30.
[52] Jonson-Reid, M., Presnall, N., Drake, B., Fox, L., Bierut, L., Reich, W., Kane, P., Todd, R.D. and Constantino, J.N. (2010) Effects of child maltreatment and inherited liability on antisocial development: An official records study. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 49, 321-332. doi:10.1016/j.jaac.2009.11.015
[53] Chartier, M.J., Walker, J.R. and Naimark, B. (2009) Health risk behaviors and mental health problems as mediators of the relationship between childhood abuse and adult health. American Journal of Public Health, 99, 847-854. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2007.122408
[54] Thornberry, T.P., Henry, K.L., Ireland, T.O. and Smith, C.A. (2010) The causal impact of childhood-limited maltreatment and adolescent maltreatment on early adult adjustment. Journal of Adolescent Health, 46, 359-365. doi:10.1016/j.jadohealth.2009.09.011
[55] Tonmyr, L., Thornton, T., Draca, J. and Wekerle, C. (2010) A review of childhood maltreatment and adolescent substance use relationship. Current Psychiatry Reviews, 6, 223-234. doi:10.2174/157340010791792581
[56] Werkerle, C., Leung, E., Goldstein, A., Thornton, T. and Tonmyr, L. (2009) Substance use among adolescents in child welfare versus adolescents in the general population: A comparison of the Maltreatment and Adolescent Pathways (MAP) longitudinal study and the Ontario Student Drug Use Survey (OSDUS) datasets. National Clearinghouse on Family Violence, London.
[57] Widom, C.S., Marmorstein, N.R. and White, H.R. (2006) Childhood victimization and illicit drug use in middle adulthood. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 20, 394-403. doi:10.1037/0893-164X.20.4.394
[58] Rothman, E.F., Edwards, E.M., Heeren, T. and Hingson, R.W. (2007) Adverse childhood experiences predict earlier age of drinking onset: Results from a representative US sample of current and former drinkers, Pediatrics, 122, e298-e304. doi:10.1542/peds.2007-3412
[59] Hyman, S.M., Garcia, M. and Sinha, R. (2006) Gender specific associations between types of childhood maltreatment and the onset, escalation and severity of substance use in cocaine dependent adults. The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 32, 655-664. doi:10.1080/10623320600919193
[60] Hamburger, M.E., Lebb, R.T. and Swahn, M.H. (2010) Childhood maltreatment and early alcohol use among high-risk adolescents. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 69, 291-295.
[61] Nelson, E.C., Heath, A.C., Lynskey, M.T., Bucholz, K.K., Madden, P.A.F., Statham, D.J. and Martin, N.G. (2006) Childhood sexual abuse and risk for licit and illicit drug-related outcomes: A twin study. Psychological Medicine, 36, 1473-1483. doi:10.1017/S0033291706008397
[62] Shin, S.H., Edwards, E.M. and Heeren, T. (2009) Child abuse and neglect: Relations to adolescent binge drinking in the national longitudinal study of Adolescent Health (AddHealth) study. Additive Behaviors, 34, 277-280. doi:10.1016/j.addbeh.2008.10.023
[63] Kerr, T., Stoltz, J.-A., Marshall, B.D.L., Lai, C., Strathdee, S.A. and Wood, E. (2009) Childhood trauma and injection drug use among high-risk youth. Journal of Adolescent Health, 45, 300-302. doi:10.1016/j.jadohealth.2009.03.007
[64] Lo C.C. and Cheng, T.C. (2007) The impact of childhood maltreatment on young adults’ substance abuse. The Ame- rican Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 33, 139-146. doi:10.1080/00952990601091119
[65] White H.R. and Widom, C.S. (2008) Three potential mediators of the effects of child abuse and neglect on adulthood substance use among women. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 69, 337-347.
[66] Pederson, C.L., Vanhorn, D.R., Wilson, J.F., Martorano, L.M., Venema, J.M. and Kennedy, S.M. (2008) Childhood abuse related to nicotine, illicit and perscription drug use by women: Pilot study. Psychological Reports, 103, 459-466. doi:10.2466/pr0.103.2.459-466
[67] Hyman, S.M., Paliwal, P., Chaplin, T.M., Mazure, C.M., Rounsaville, B.J. and Sinha, R. (2008) Severity of childhood trauma is predictive of cocaine relapse outcomes in women but not men. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 92, 208-216. doi:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2007.08.006
[68] Widom, C.S., White, H.R., Czaja, S.J. and Marmorstein, N.R. (2007) Long-term effects of child abuse and neglect on alcohol use and excessive drinking in middle adulthood. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 68, 317-326.
[69] Smith, C. A., Elwyn, L.J., Ireland, T.O. and Thornberry, T.P. (2010) Impact of adolescent exposure to intimate partner violence on substance use in early adulthood. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 71, 219-230.
[70] Gilbert, R., Widom, C.S., Browne, K., Fergusson, D., Webb, E. and Janson, S. (2009) Child Maltreatment 1: Burden and consequences of child maltreatment in high- income countries. Lancet, 373, 68-81. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(08)61706-7
[71] Brezo, J., Paris, J., Barker, E.D., Tremblay, R.E., Vitaro, F., Zoccolillo, M., Hebert, M. and Turecki, G. (2007) Natural history of suicidal behaviors in a population-based sample of young adults. Psychological Medicine, 37, 1574. doi:10.1017/S003329170700058X
[72] Calder, J., McVean, A. and Yang, W. (2010) History of abuse and current suicidal ideation: Results from a population based survey. Journal of Family Violence, 25, 205-214. doi:10.1007/s10896-009-9284-x
[73] Moniruzzaman, A., Pearce, M.E., Patel, S.H., Chavoshi, N., Teegee, M., Adam, W., Christian, W.M., Henderson, E., Craib, K.J.P., Schechter, M.T. and Spittal, P.M. (2009) The Cedar Project: Correlates of attempted suicide among young aboriginal people who use injection and non-injection drugs in two Canadian cities. International Journal of Circumpolar Health, 68, 261-273.
[74] Pearce, M.E., Christian, W.M., Patterson, K., Norris, K., Moniruzzaman, A., Craib, K.J.P., Schechter, M.T. and Spittal, P.M. (2008) The Cedar Project: Historical trauma, sexual abuse, and HIV risk among young Aboriginal people who use injection and non-injection drugs in two Canadian cities. Social Science & Medicine, 66, 2185-2194.
[75] Bruffaerts, R., Demyttenaere, K., Borges, G., Haro, J.M., Chiu, W.T., Hwang, I., Karam, E.G., Kessler, R.C., Sampson, N., et al (2010) Childhood adversities as risk factors for onset and persistence of suicidal behaviour. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 197, 20-27. doi:10.1192/bjp.bp.109.074716
[76] Belik, S.-L., Stein, M.B., Asmundson, G.J.G. and Sareen, J. (2009) Relation between traumatic events and suicide attempts in Canadian military personnel. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 54, 93-104.
[77] McIntyre, R.S., Soczynska, J.K., Mancini, D., Lam, C., Woldeyohannes, H.O., Moon, S., Konarski, J.Z. and Kennedy, S.H. (2008) The relationship between childhood abuse and suicidality in adult bipolar disorder. Violence and Victims, 23, 361-372. doi:10.1891/0886-6708.23.3.361
[78] Joiner, T.-E.J., Sachs-Ericsson, N., Wingate, L.R., Brown, J.S., Anestis, M.D. and Selby, E.A. (2007) Childhood physical and sexual abuse and lifetime number of suicide attempts: A persistent and theoretically important relationship. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 45, 539-547. doi:10.1016/j.brat.2006.04.007
[79] Pompili, M., Innamorati, M., Lester, D., Iliceto, P., Rihmer, Z., Sakiskal, H., Girardi, P., Ferracuti, S. and Tatarellli, R. (2009) Suicide risk and personality traits in physically and/or sexually abused acute psychiatric inpatients: A preliminary study. Psychological Reports, 105, 554-568. doi:10.2466/pr0.105.2.554-568
[80] Hahm, C.H., Lee, Y., Ozonoff, A. and Van Wert, M.J. (2010) The impact of multiple types of child maltreatment on subsequent risk behaviors among women during the transition from adolescence to young adulthood. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 39, 528-540. doi:10.1007/s10964-009-9490-0
[81] Duke, N.N. Pettingell, S.L., McMorris, B.J. and Borrowsky, I.W. (2010) Adolescent violence perpetration: Associations with multiple types of adverse childhood experiences. Pediatrics, 125, e778-e786. doi:10.1542/peds.2009-0597
[82] Spokas, M., Wenzel, A., Stirman, S.W., Brown, G.K. and Beck, A.T. (2009) Suicide risk factors and mediators between childhood sexual abuse and suicide ideation among male and female suicide attempters. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 22, 467-470. doi:10.1002/jts.20438
[83] O’Leary P. and Gould, N. (2009) Men who were sexually abused in childhood and subsequent suicidal ideation: Community comparison, explanations and practice implications. British Journal of Social Work, 39, 950-968. doi:10.1093/bjsw/bcn130
[84] Brezo, J., Paris, J., Vitaro, F., Hebert, M., Tremblay, R.E. and Turecki, G. (2008) Predicting suicide attempts in young adults with histories of childhood abuse. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 193, 134-139. doi:10.1192/bjp.bp.107.037994
[85] Brezo, J., Paris, J., Tremblay, R.E., Vitaro, F., Hebert, M. and Turecki, G. (2007) Identifying correlates of suicide attempts in suicidal ideators: A population-based study. Psychological Medicine, 37, 1551-1562. doi:10.1017/S0033291707000803
[86] Eisenberg, M.E., Ackard, D.M. and Resnick, M.D. (2007) Protective factors and suicide risk in adolescents with a history of sexual abuse. The Journal of Pediatrics, 151, 482-487. doi:10.1016/j.jpeds.2007.04.033
[87] Fallon, B., Trocme, N., Fluke, J., MacLaurin, B., Tonmyr, L. and Yuan, Y.-Y. (2010) Methodological challenges in measuring child maltreatment. Child Abuse & Neglect, 34, 70-79. doi:10.1016/j.chiabu.2009.08.008
[88] Herrenkohl, R.C. (2005) The definition of child maltreatment: From case study to construct. Child Abuse & Neglect, 29, 413-424. doi:10.1016/j.chiabu.2005.04.002
[89] Runyan, D.K., Cox, C.E., Dubowitz, H., Newtwon, R.R., Upadhyaya, M., Kotch, J.B., Leeb, R.T., Everson, M.D. and Knight, E.D. (2005) Describing maltreatment: Do child protective service reports and research definitions agree? Child Abuse & Neglect, 29, 461-477. doi:10.1016/j.chiabu.2004.06.015
[90] Afifi, T.O., Mather, A., Boman, J., Fleisher, W., Enns, M.W., MacMillan, H. andSareen, J. (2011) Childhood adversity and personality disorders: Results from a nationally representative population-based study. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 45, 814-822. doi:10.1016/j.jpsychires.2010.11.008

Copyright © 2024 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.