Research on the Collaborative Governance of Social Responsibility in Online Audiovisual Enterprises


This paper aims to analyze the present conditions of the social responsibility ecosystem in online audiovisual enterprises in the digital age. It focuses on the governance of social responsibility in these enterprises and conducts an in-depth analysis of the problems and influencing factors related to the social responsibility aberrations of online audiovisual enterprises. Drawing upon social responsibility theory and collaborative governance theory, this research constructs a social responsibility guidance and governance system guided by the public, supported by the voluntary fulfillment of responsibilities by online audiovisual enterprises, and based on the collaborative participation of diverse stakeholders. It explores and optimizes the implementation pathways of this system, providing theoretical support and practical guidance for promoting the sustainable development of online audiovisual enterprises. Furthermore, it aims to contribute to the creation of a harmonious Internet ecosystem.

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Kang, C. , Idris, M. and Liu, J. (2024) Research on the Collaborative Governance of Social Responsibility in Online Audiovisual Enterprises. Social Networking, 13, 1-13. doi: 10.4236/sn.2024.131001.

1. Introduction

As of December 2022, the number of online audiovisual service users in China reached 1.04 billion, with the market size of the overall online audiovisual sector exceeding 700 billion yuan. Emerging formats like “audiovisual+” are increasingly playing a significant enabling role in social life and industrial structure. Online audiovisual enterprises have become vital engines of the digital economy, carrying the important responsibility and mission of disseminating advanced culture and core values. Therefore, research on the social responsibility of online audiovisual enterprises will provide valuable support for these enterprises to fulfill their responsibilities consciously. It will serve as an intrinsic driving force for online audiovisual enterprises to enhance their awareness of social responsibility and regulate their corporate behavior.

Building upon this foundation, it is essential to effectively coordinate multiple stakeholders including the public, enterprises, government, media, and industry associations. Constructing a collaborative governance system for the social responsibility of online audiovisual enterprises is necessary. This effort aims to create a harmonious and mutually beneficial online audiovisual communication ecosystem, thereby fostering sustainable development for both enterprises and the larger economic and social context.

2. Literature Review

2.1. Research on the Social Responsibility of Online Audiovisual Enterprises

The concept of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) was first introduced by Oliver Sheldon in 1924 in his book “The Philosophy of Management.” In 1947, reflecting on the societal moral and cultural decline triggered by media content vulgarity and communication industry monopolies, the “Hutchins Commission” in the United States brought the concept of social responsibility into the field of journalism and communication. The theory of social responsibility emphasizes that mass media should assume certain responsibilities and obligations towards society and the public, thus amending and renewing the existing liberal theories.

Online audiovisual content primarily includes short videos, live streaming, online audio content, and comprehensive videos (referring to online movies, TV series, variety shows, etc.). Online audiovisual enterprises possess a dual identity as both businesses and media outlets. The social responsibility of these enterprises refers to their obligation, through transparent and ethical behavior, to reach a consensus with stakeholders. They bear responsibility for the current and future impacts of their decisions and activities. This involves constructing a harmonious and mutually beneficial internet ecosystem, promoting sustainable development for both the online audiovisual industry and the broader economic and social context. Research in China regarding the social responsibility of online audiovisual enterprises predominantly explores platform social responsibility governance issues from the perspective of corporate social responsibility.

Existing research has primarily focused on the impact of corporate social responsibility on corporate performance, brand competitiveness, and consumer purchasing intentions. Scholars have conducted studies in this area. Additionally, some researchers have explored governance strategies for social responsibility from the perspective of online media [1] [2] [3] [4] . The works of Many authors [5] [6] [7] have provided valuable insights for online audiovisual enterprises. The core viewpoints in these studies revolve around the following aspects: online media’s social responsibility should focus on news value, guide public opinion, convey outstanding culture, and provide audiences with healthy and beneficial information [8] ; media should enhance regulatory efforts in the process of fulfilling social responsibility, achieving the assignment and fulfillment of responsibility through diverse perspectives and the joint efforts of various forces [9] ; strategies to address the lack of social responsibility in online media include improving management systems, enhancing industry self-discipline, and increasing audience supervisory capabilities [10] [11] ; constructing mechanisms for the advancement of online media social responsibility should focus on self-regulation, cooperation, information, rules, and supervision [1] .

Many scholars have observed that, in the current scenario, some online audiovisual enterprises actively undertake social responsibilities while ensuring their development. They have made beneficial attempts in areas such as rural revitalization, providing high-quality audiovisual content, and contributing to industrial and economic development [12] . However, there are also issues in some online audiovisual enterprises, including vulgar content [13] , dissemination of false information, infringement of rights, and personal information leakage [14] .

While scholars outside China have not directly delved into online audiovisual enterprises, there is a rich body of research focusing on the social responsibility of online media and internet companies. They generally consider undertaking social responsibility as an active societal behavior for enterprises [15] . Maintaining good relations with the community can enhance a company’s competitive advantage [16] . Online media, through information dissemination, holds significant influence over both the market and society [17] . Internet-based media companies should actively engage with and support the economic development of their communities, and show enthusiasm for environmental protection, public welfare, and charitable activities based on their circumstances [18] . However, these studies predominantly provide strategies for corporate social responsibility governance from a top-down perspective, with few offering rationalized suggestions for the construction of social responsibility systems for online audiovisual enterprises from a bottom-up approach based on the public perspective.

2.2. Research on Collaborative Governance, and Social Responsibility

Collaborative governance refers to the relationships between various entities, aiming to reduce internal conflicts and enhance governance efficiency. In the context of the social responsibility deviation in online audiovisual enterprises, collaborative governance theory emphasizes the mutual collaboration among diverse governance entities. It advocates establishing effective mechanisms for social responsibility guidance and implementing integrated mechanisms for social responsibility operations, thereby enhancing the synergy, scientificity, and effectiveness of social responsibility governance. Research on collaborative governance of social responsibility provides valuable references and guidance for the development of both enterprises and media platforms.

Some researchers, based on an ecosystem perspective, have explored a new paradigm for corporate social responsibility governance. They have found that the key to fulfilling corporate social responsibility lies in internal motivation. They have proposed dynamic pathways for ecological governance, focusing on areas such as corporate management, review and filtering, identification of responsibility vision, involvement in supervision, and punishment [2] . Scholars have also proposed an integrated governance framework for corporate social responsibility involving government, society, industry associations, and enterprises (“Four-in -One”) [19] . In the field of social responsibility of media platforms, scholars have suggested a new media industry social responsibility governance model from the dimensions of technology, platforms, and government [20] . They have demonstrated the inherent alignment between the multi-centric governance model and the construction of social responsibility by Internet companies. They have created a new collaborative governance model that encompasses multiple governance entities, including government, enterprises, departments, the public, and media [21] . Existing research has delved into governance pathways of social responsibility from various aspects, including media, enterprises, and government. However, studies on the social responsibility governance system that integrates online audiovisual enterprises and collaborative governance are still relatively scarce.

In conclusion, research on the social responsibility of online audiovisual enterprises, conducted both domestically and internationally within the Chinese context, suffers from several limitations: 1) The research focus has been predominantly on either traditional enterprises or online media platforms, lacking comprehensive evaluations and in-depth analyses specific to the social responsibility issues of online audiovisual enterprises; 2) The research directions have often centred on “unilateral governance of enterprises under individual contexts” and “multilateral governance of industries under collective contexts,” without advancing to “social collaborative governance under platform contexts.” There has been limited research on the diverse collaborative governance approaches concerning the social responsibility issues of online audiovisual enterprises. Based on these gaps, this study starts by examining the current status of social responsibility in the digital era of online audiovisual enterprises. Through the analysis of their social responsibility deviations and influencing factors, it delves into how to construct a diverse and collaborative social responsibility governance system. This research aims to provide theoretical support and practical guidance for fostering sustainable development within online audiovisual enterprises.

3. Analysis of Issues and Factors Influencing the Deviation of Social Responsibility in Online Audiovisual Enterprises

3.1. Social Responsibility Deviation Issues

The issue of social responsibility deviation in online audiovisual enterprises is a significant topic in today’s digital internet ecosystem, involving the following five aspects.

3.1.1. Unauthorized Content Dissemination

Online audiovisual enterprises are responsible for reviewing and managing the content posted on their platforms. However, some companies have failed to effectively filter and monitor unauthorized content, leading to the proliferation of inappropriate materials such as pornography, violence, vulgarity, and false information. This unauthorized content has a negative impact on the public and poses challenges to social morality and public order. As content platforms, online audiovisual enterprises play a crucial role in ensuring users access healthy and positive information. However, the current situation is far from satisfactory due to factors such as low qualifications of reviewers, lax review processes, and imperfect technical methods, resulting in the widespread dissemination of unauthorized content on some online audiovisual platforms. To address this issue, companies should enhance the training and management of content review teams, optimize review processes, and incorporate advanced technological methods to improve the effectiveness of filtering unauthorized content.

3.1.2. Piracy and Copyright Infringement

Some online audiovisual enterprises distribute and disseminate others’ works without authorization, infringing upon the rights of original creators and causing damage to the industry’s development and innovation. Online audiovisual enterprises, rooted in content production and dissemination, should respect intellectual property rights and protect the legitimate interests of original works. However, due to insufficient awareness of copyright protection and the lack of robust copyright management mechanisms, many online audiovisual platforms engage in infringement in terms of content acquisition and distribution. To address this issue, companies should emphasize strengthening awareness of copyright protection, establish robust copyright management mechanisms, enhance cooperation with copyright holders, combat piracy and infringement, and protect original works and intellectual property rights.

3.1.3. Advertising Violations

Some online audiovisual enterprises engage in false advertising, misleading users, or deceiving consumers, damaging public interests and market order. Advertising serves as a crucial means for online audiovisual enterprises to generate economic benefits. However, due to profit motives and lax regulation, some companies exhibit violations in advertising publication and management. Therefore, companies should strengthen advertising review and management, ensuring that advertising content is truthful and accurate, avoiding misleading the public and deceiving consumers. Simultaneously, the government should enhance the supervision of the advertising industry, strengthen the formulation and enforcement of advertising laws and regulations, combat false advertising and fraudulent activities, and uphold fair competition and market order.

3.1.4. Privacy Protection and Data Security

With the development of the internet, the protection of personal data has become a significant issue. Online audiovisual enterprises collect and process a large amount of user data. However, some enterprises have not effectively protected users’ privacy, leading to problems such as data leaks and misuse, which pose risks and troubles for users. As entities responsible for data collection and processing, online audiovisual enterprises should shoulder the responsibility of protecting user privacy and data security. However, due to weak security awareness and inadequate technical means, some enterprises are lacking in privacy protection and data security. Therefore, online audiovisual enterprises should enhance their awareness of protecting user data, establish sound data security management systems, strengthen technical means and security measures, and ensure the security of user data and the protection of privacy.

3.1.5. Monopoly and Unfair Competition

Market competition is a vital driving force for enterprise innovation and development. However, some online audiovisual enterprises restrict the development of other competitors by monopolizing the market and engaging in unfair competition, harming market fairness and consumer interests. This situation is influenced by objective factors such as weak government regulation and enterprises seeking to maximize their profits. In response to this situation, the government should strengthen market competition supervision, formulate and enforce laws and regulations against monopolies and unfair competition, and maintain the order of fair market competition. Meanwhile, enterprises should adhere to market rules, uphold the principle of fair competition, create a level playing field, and promote the healthy development of the industry.

3.2. Harms Caused by Social Responsibility Deviation

The social responsibility deviations of these online audiovisual enterprises have led to various social impacts and harms.

3.2.1. Damaging User Rights

Issues such as the spread of illegal content, improper advertising practices, and user data security problems harm users’ legitimate rights. Users face risks to their safety and privacy when using online audiovisual platforms. Users are affected by inappropriate content, leading to compromised physical and mental health. False advertising causes varying degrees of financial loss to users. The leakage and misuse of user data may result in significant harm to personal privacy.

3.2.2. Hindering Creative Environment

The copyright infringement actions of online audiovisual enterprises seriously affect the creative environment for original authors. Unauthorized use of others’ works not only deprives original authors of their creative rights but also undermines their enthusiasm and creative environment. Original authors face the risk of their creative achievements being misused, inhibiting their enthusiasm and creativity.

3.2.3. Disrupting Market Order

Unfair competition and copyright infringement by online audiovisual enterprises distort market competition order, creating an unfair competitive environment for compliant enterprises and hindering the healthy development of the industry. Price dumping and malicious attacks on competitors can lead to market price chaos, making it difficult for compliant enterprises to maintain normal operations.

3.2.4. Influencing Social Atmosphere

The existence of social responsibility deviations in online audiovisual enterprises leads to the amplification of inappropriate content and vulgar behavior in society, further impacting social atmosphere and moral values. The dissemination of such inappropriate content negatively influences people’s values and behavioral norms, leading to a decline in societal moral standards.

3.3. Analysis of Influencing Factors

The influencing factors contributing to the deviation of social responsibility in online audiovisual enterprises mainly involve government regulation, internal corporate management, market competition, user demands, and societal values, among others.

3.3.1. Government Regulation

Government regulation constitutes a pivotal factor influencing the deviation of social responsibility in online audiovisual enterprises. Inadequate or ineffective government regulation may allow these enterprises to evade their responsibilities, fostering the proliferation of non-compliant behavior. Additionally, inconsistencies and delays in government regulation might lead to instances of social responsibility deviation across different regions or periods. Therefore, it is imperative for the government to intensify regulatory efforts, establish and refine relevant laws and regulations, create robust regulatory mechanisms, and enhance the efficiency and transparency of oversight. The government should also strengthen communication and collaboration with enterprises and society, fostering a multi-stakeholder governance scenario to collectively promote the fulfilment of social responsibility in online audiovisual enterprises.

3.3.2. Corporate Internal Management

Inadequate internal management within online audiovisual enterprises is another significant factor contributing to the deviation of social responsibility. If companies are not stringent in their management of content review, copyright protection, advertising practices, and user data privacy, non-compliant behaviors are more likely to occur. Furthermore, a company’s organizational culture and values significantly influence the fulfillment of social responsibility. Consequently, companies must enhance internal management by establishing sound mechanisms for content review, copyright protection, advertising management, and user data privacy protection. This entails increasing internal scrutiny and monitoring efforts to ensure the effective fulfillment of social responsibility. Simultaneously, companies should focus on cultivating a positive organizational culture, promoting correct values, and enhancing employees’ awareness of social responsibility and moral integrity.

3.3.3. Market Competition

In highly competitive market environments, some enterprises, in pursuit of maximizing profits, may resort to unfair competitive practices, leading to non- compliant behaviors that harm both user interests and public welfare. Furthermore, market competition can sometimes lead companies to overlook their social responsibilities, prioritizing economic gains over their societal obligations. To address this issue, it is crucial for the government to enhance market supervision, combat unfair competition, and maintain a fair competitive market order. Simultaneously, enterprises should adopt a proper perspective on market competition, adhere to legal and compliant operations, and promote the organic integration of market competition with social responsibility.

3.3.4. User Demands

User demands also exert a significant influence on the fulfillment of social responsibility by online audiovisual enterprises. If there is a high demand for inappropriate content among users, companies might relax their content review standards to cater to these demands, tolerating non-compliant behavior, which results in the deviation of social responsibility. Moreover, users’ pursuit of free content may lead companies to neglect their social responsibilities. To address this issue, widespread public education is necessary to enhance media literacy and moral awareness among the public. This can guide the public’s attention towards healthy and positive content. Establishing a robust public evaluation and supervision mechanism can pressure companies to enhance self-discipline, actively fulfill social responsibilities, build a responsible corporate image, and subsequently enhance public trust and loyalty towards the companies.

3.3.5. Social Values

Social values constitute the essential backdrop and foundation for the fulfilment of social responsibility by online audiovisual enterprises. If social values deviate from normal moral and ethical standards, tolerating or even encouraging non- compliant behavior, can easily lead to the deviation of social responsibility in online audiovisual enterprises. Therefore, it is essential for all sectors of society to jointly promote correct social values, and strengthen guidance and supervision of media ethics and morals. Meanwhile, enterprises should actively explore sustainable business models, provide high-quality content and services, emphasize the fulfillment of social responsibilities, actively promote positive values, and guide the formation of a healthy and orderly social atmosphere.

In summary, the problem of social responsibility deviation in online audiovisual enterprises has caused widespread negative impacts and harms to society. To construct a healthy and harmonious online audiovisual environment, these enterprises should enhance self-discipline, shoulder social responsibilities, and actively promote the standardized development of the industry. Simultaneously, governments and relevant regulatory authorities should strengthen supervision, increase regulatory efforts on online audiovisual enterprises, and establish sound legal frameworks. The public should also actively participate in evaluation and supervision, safeguarding their rights and collectively maintaining the ecological environment of the online audiovisual industry.

4. The Construction and Implementation Pathways of Social Responsibility Collaborative Governance System in Online Audiovisual Enterprises

Based on the research findings above, a social responsibility guidance and governance system is constructed, with the public as the guiding force, online audiovisual enterprises’ voluntary commitment as the foundation, and the collaborative participation of diverse entities (government, media, and industry associations) as the basis. This system aims to gradually promote the establishment of a comprehensive social responsibility assurance mechanism, including public evaluation and supervision, corporate institutional construction and self-discipline, media public opinion guidance and disclosure, government review, and regulation. Further exploration and optimization of its implementation pathways are undertaken in practice, ensuring the healthy operation of online audiovisual enterprises, regulating the orderly development of internet platform economies, and fostering a harmonious internet ecosystem.

4.1. System Construction

4.1.1. Public Evaluation and Supervision

The public should focus on the authenticity, legality, and compliance of information disseminators and content. They should enhance their ability to identify information and their awareness of their rights. Utilizing social media and self-media platforms, the public should pay attention to and disseminate opinions and evaluations related to the social responsibility of online audiovisual enterprises. They should also report and complain about the illegal activities of online audiovisual enterprises through relevant channels.

4.1.2. Corporate Systems and Self-Discipline

Online audiovisual enterprises should establish a sound content review mechanism and an operation monitoring centre. From the aspects of corporate regulations, technical monitoring, third-party supervision and evaluation mechanisms, and public supervision feedback channels, they should formulate appropriate self-discipline agreements and systems. By strengthening industry self-discipline, enterprises should effectively enhance their awareness, capabilities, and levels of fulfilling social responsibilities.

4.1.3. Media Opinion Guidance and Information Disclosure

Media should fully exert their role in guiding public opinion. By promoting relevant laws and regulations and consumer rights knowledge, they should enhance public awareness of self-power protection. Together, they should create a rational, legal, and compliant green online environment. At the same time, the media should promptly disclose negative behaviors of online audiovisual enterprises, enabling healthy intervention in their social responsibility performance.

4.1.4. Government Review and Regulation

The government should actively adapt to the realities of the digital age, strengthening regulatory measures on online audiovisual enterprises. This can be achieved through the formulation of relevant laws and regulations, the publication of industry standards, and enhanced regulatory law enforcement. This approach effectively raises awareness of social responsibility among online audiovisual enterprises. Establishing accountability mechanisms, the government should exercise effective control and guidance over enterprises. They should also establish a corporate social responsibility index evaluation system and a public supervision and complaint mechanism, purifying the online environment and establishing a fair and standardized internet governance ecosystem.

4.2. Implementation Pathways

4.2.1. Establishing a Community of Public Value Objectives for Social Responsibility

We need to build a community of common public values for social responsibility and enhance collaborative governance among diverse stakeholders. By establishing trust relationships among responsible entities in the online audiovisual industry, optimizing the public value perception of social responsibility, and strengthening negotiation and communication with stakeholders, we can generate the willingness and initial momentum for collaborative governance of social responsibility.

4.2.2. Incorporating Social Responsibility Culture through Digital Technology

We should rely on digital technology to introduce a culture of social responsibility, enhancing the environmental impetus for collaborative governance. Actively utilizing media platforms and digital technology, we can create a favorable social responsibility culture and a proactive network ecosystem, breaking down organizational barriers, enabling cross-boundary information sharing and effective communication, and enhancing the environmental facilitation role for collaborative governance of social responsibility in the online audiovisual industry.

4.2.3. Building a Platform for Social Responsibility Information Disclosure and Sharing

We need to establish a platform for disclosing and sharing social responsibility information, and constructing a comprehensive and effective mechanism for guiding social responsibility. Leveraging the technical advantages of internet companies and the interactive nature and resource-sharing characteristics of media, we should build a platform for disclosing and sharing social responsibility information. This platform should urge and encourage companies to pay attention to public evaluation and social opinions, conscientiously adhere to social responsibility standards, and guide social responsibility self-regulation and early warning through the establishment of a mechanism for guiding social responsibility, ultimately achieving self-discipline and social responsibility alertness and guidance in the online audiovisual industry.

4.2.4. Optimizing the Integrated Design of Social Responsibility Operational Mechanisms

We should optimize the integrated design of the social responsibility operational mechanism, reducing obstacles and resistance to collaborative governance. By seeking common interests among diverse stakeholders, we can promote the establishment of a grid-like social responsibility operational mechanism, facilitating long-term cooperation and stimulating the enthusiasm of diverse stakeholders to undertake social responsibility, ultimately promoting smooth collaborative governance.

4.2.5. Nurturing Social Responsibility Awareness and Conscious Responsible Behavior

We should devote ourselves to cultivating social responsibility awareness and conscientious behavior, enhancing the execution of collaborative governance. The logical relationship between enhancing corporate competitiveness and undertaking corresponding social responsibility should be widely disseminated, forming a common understanding, and inspiring online audiovisual companies to voluntarily establish social responsibility awareness, actively fulfil social responsibility, and consciously participate in the collaborative governance of social responsibility.

5. Conclusion

In conclusion, the social responsibility issues faced by online audiovisual enterprises, in comparison to traditional enterprises, exhibit multiple stakeholders, high harmfulness, and complexity in governance. The reasons behind these social responsibility aberrations mainly stem from the lack of clear accountability, mandatory regulations, effective supervision, and governance mechanisms. Building an internet responsibility ecosystem necessitates the active participation of internet enterprises and their responsible community members, along with external societal factors. This collaborative effort should be based on a sustainable dynamic balance rooted in value creation, value sharing, and interactive innovation. Achieving social consensus and collectively creating and sharing the results of value innovation are paramount. The varying degrees to which online audiovisual enterprises fulfill their social responsibilities can lead to differences in public recognition and subjective judgments of corporate values. This variance can influence public trust and loyalty toward these enterprises. Consequently, the conscientious fulfillment of social responsibilities positively impacts and influences a company’s competitiveness and corporate image. Constructing a social responsibility guidance and governance system, guided by the public, supported by the voluntary fulfillment of responsibilities by online audiovisual enterprises, and based on the collaborative participation of diverse stakeholders, is essential. This system forms the necessary path to ensure the healthy operation of online audiovisual enterprises and the orderly development of the Internet platform economy. An effective collaboration among diverse stakeholders, including the public, enterprises, government, industry associations, and media, to establish a social responsibility guidance and governance system across multiple sectors and platforms, is vital. This collaboration is a crucial guarantee for the healthy and orderly development of online audiovisual enterprises and the internet platform economy.

Funding Project

2023 Henan Province Philosophy and Social Science Planning Project: Research on Collaborative Governance of Social Responsibility in Online Audiovisual Enterprises Based on Public Perception (Project No. 2023BXW006).

2023 Henan Province Social Science Federation Research Project: Research on the Deviation and Governance of Social Responsibility of Opinion Leaders in Integrated Media Advertising Communication (Project No. SKL-2023-1634).

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest regarding the publication of this paper.


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