pment in the periphery as well as suburbanization of the higher income group, which led the sea coast to lose its attractiveness to some extent.

Moreover, people with different tastes and cultures who came from different parts of the country together with international influences led to a very vibrant market comprising of urban restaurants very promising but risky for investors.

This study contributes to the available literature on the location and evolution of restaurants in metropolitan areas by considering the development of restaurants as a spatial diffusion process modeled with regression analysis. Morphologically and in terms of the processes at work, the string feature of the boom in the earlier 21st century, especially in light of our examination of the previous periods, illustrates the difference between the coastal and peripheral developments. In light of this difference, three factors deserve specific mention. First, Istanbul’s periphery is rapidly developing with the construction of large housing projects that are served by mega malls with large food courts. Second, the availability of large plots at the edge of the metropolitan area eased the resolution of the problems related to site assembly for large developments, which were served by the peripheral highways. Thirdly, more fancy restaurants were located along the Bosporus, where a higher number of higher income residents live, rather than

Figure 2. The spatial distribution of restaurants in Istanbul in 2013.

the periphery. Fourthly, the restaurants in the historical core mainly aim at serving tourists and businessmen. On the one hand, restaurants clustered in a certain location seem to enjoy a high volume of customers; on the other hand, clustering causes bankruptcy of the restaurants that fail to compete with others. Therefore, there is a high rate of takeover among these.

The results of the study will be useful for urban and regional planners, policy- makers, investors and marketing consultants. Investigating the socio-psycho- logical aspects of restaurant location by paying due attention to the needs and behavior of different social groups in the post-modern society is suggested for further research.

NOTES

*The article analyzes and compares the location of restaurants; reflects the impacts of the transformation of the city’s cultural life on the urban structure in Istanbul between 1997 and 2013.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

References

[1] Anas, A., Amott, R., & Small, P. (1998). Urban Spatial Structures. Journal of Economic Literature, 26, 1426-1464.
[2] Appelbaum, R. (2011). Dishing It Out: In Search of the Restaurant Experience. London: Reaktion Books.
[3] Austin, S. B., Mely, S. J., Patel, A., Sanchez, B. N., Gortmaker, S. L., & Buke, S. (2005). Clustering of Fast-Food Restaurants around Schools: A Novel Application of Spatial Statistics to the Study of Food Environment. American Journal of Public Health, 95, 1575-1581.
https://doi.org/10.2105/ajph.2004.056341
[4] Axenov, K. E., Bondarchuck, E., & Brade, I. (1997). The New Retail Trade and Services and Their Emerging Location Patterns in St. Petersburg, GeoJournal, 42, 403-417.
https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1006818217194
[5] Belasco, W. J. (1979). Toward a Culinary Common Denominator: The Rise of Howard Johnson’s, 1925-1940. Journal of American Culture, 2, 503-519.
https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1542-734X.1979.0203_503.x
[6] Binkley, J. K. (1998). Demand for Fast Food across Metropolitan Areas. Journal of Restaurant and Foodservice Marketing, 1, 37-50.
https://doi.org/10.1300/J061v03n01_03
[7] Deleon, J. (1995). The White Russians in Istanbul. Istanbul: Remzi.
[8] Dokmeci, V., & Berkoz, L. (1994). Transformation of Istanbul from a Monocentric to a Polycentric City. European Planning Studies, 2, 193-205.
https://doi.org/10.1080/09654319408720259
[9] Dokmeci, V., & Berkoz, L. (2000). Residential-Location Preferences According to Demographic Characteristics in Istanbul. Landscape and Urban Planning, 48, 45-53.
[10] Dokmeci, V., & Ciraci, H. (1990). Beyoglu. Istanbul: Turing.
[11] Dokmeci, V., & Ciraci, H. (1999). From Westernization to Globalization: An Old District of Istanbul. Planning History, 21, 13-23.
[12] Erkip, F. (2003). The Shopping Mall as an Emergent Public Space in Turkey. Environment and Planning A, 35, 1073-1093.
https://doi.org/10.1068/a35167
[13] Finkelstein, F. (1989). Dining Out: A Sociology of Modern Manners. New York, NY: New York University Press.
[14] Gu, Z. (2002). Analyzing Bankruptcy in the Restaurant Industry: A Multiple Discriminant Model. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 21, 25-42.
[15] Han, H., & Ryu, K. (2009). The Roles of the Physical Environment, Price Perception, and Customer Satisfaction in Determining Customer Loyalty in the Restaurant Industry. Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research, 33, 487-510.
https://doi.org/10.1177/1096348009344212
[16] Haynes, K. E., & Fotheringham, A. S. (1984). Gravity and Spatial Interaction Models. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage Publication.
[17] Helphand, K. (1983). The Landscape of McDonald’s. In M. Fishwick, & B. Green (Eds.), Ronald Revisited: The World of Ronald McDonald (pp.39-44). Green, OH: Bowling Green University Popular Press.
[18] Holm, F., Falkebo, M., Salmiovirta, T., Ramstad, A. H., & van Rooy, H. (1995). Analysis of Retailing in the Nordic Countries. International Trends in Retailing, 12, 3-31.
[19] Istanbul Chamber of Commerce (2011). Economic Development Index.
[20] Jackson, P. (2004). Local Consumption Cultures in a Globalizing World. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, 29, 165-178.
https://doi.org/10.1111/j.0020-2754.2004.00123.x
[21] Jacobs, M., & Scholliers, P. (2003). Eating Out in Europe: Picnics, Gourmet Dining and Snacks since the Late Eighteenth Centuries. Oxford/New York, NY: Berg.
[22] Jameson, F. (1984). Postmodernism or the Cultural Logic of Late Capitalism. New Left Review, 146, 53-92.
[23] Johns, N., & Pine, R. (2002). Consumer Behavior in the Food Service Industry: A Review. International Journal of Hospitality, 21, 119-134.
[24] Jones, K., Kamikihara, & Simmons, J. (1999). Dallas Fort Worth: Commercial Structure and Change. In M. Yeates (Ed.), Metropolitan Commercial Structure and the Globalization of Consumer Services, Progress in Planning (50, Part 4, pp. 273-290).
[25] Langon, P. (1985). Burgers! Shakes! The Atlantic, 256, 74-89.
[26] McCracken, V. A., & Brandt, J. A. (1987). Household Consumption of Food-away-from-Home: Total Expenditure and by Type of Food Facility. American Journal of Agricultural Economics, 69, 274-284.
https://doi.org/10.2307/1242277
[27] McDonald, K. (1983). The Commercial Strip: From Main Street to Television Road. Landscape, 27, 12-19.
[28] Mihalopoulos, V. G., & Demoussis, M. P. (2001). Greek Household Consumption of Food away from Home: A Microeconomic Approach. European Review of Agricultural Economics, 28, 421-432.
https://doi.org/10.1093/erae/28.4.421
[29] Min, H. (1987). A Multi-Objective Retail Service Location Model for Fast-Food Restaurants, OMEGA. International Journal of Management Sciences, 15, 429-441.
[30] Mushinski, D., & Weiler, S. (2002). A Note on the Geographic Interdependencies of Retail Market Areas. Journal of Regional Science, 42, 75-86.
https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-9787.00250
[31] Nayga, R. M., & Capps, O. (1994). Impact of Socio-Economic and Demographic Factors on Food away from Home Consumption: Number of Meals and Type Facility. Journal of Restaurant and Foodservice Marketing, 1, 45-69.
https://doi.org/10.1300/J061v01n02_04
[32] Nayga, R. M., & Wanzala, M. N. (1996). Food away from Home Expenditures in the United States: A County Level Analysis. Journal of Restaurant and Foodservice Marketing, 1, 39-51.
https://doi.org/10.1300/J061v01n03_03
[33] Peacock, M. (1992). Towards a New Consumer. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 11, 301-304.
[34] Pillsbury, R. (1987). From Hamburger Alley to Hedgerose Heights: Toward a Model of Restaurant Location Dynamics. Professional Geographer, 39, 326-344.
https://doi.org/10.1111/j.0033-0124.1987.00326.x
[35] Reimers, V., & Clulow, V. (2004). Retail Concentration: A Comparison of Spatial Convenience in Shopping Strips and Shopping Centers. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 11, 207-221.
[36] Riley, M. (1994). Marketing Eating Out: The Influence of Social Culture and Innovation. British Food Journal, 96, 15-18.
https://doi.org/10.1108/00070709410072463
[37] Ritzer, G. (1996). The McDonaldization of Society. Thousand Oaks, CA: Pine Forge Press.
[38] Robertson, R. (1995). Globalization Time-Space and Homogeneity and Heterogeneity. In M. Featherstone (Ed.), Global Modernities (pp. 61-86). London: Sage.
[39] Simmons, J., & Kamikihara, S. (1999). Nagoya: Commercial Structure and Change. In M. Yeates (Ed.), Metropolitan Commercial Structure and the Globalization of Consumer Services, Progress in Planning (50, Part 4, pp. 233-252).
[40] Smith, S. L. J. (1985). Location Patterns of Urban Restaurants. Annals of Tourism Research, 12, 581-602.
[41] Smith, S. T. J. (1983). Restaurants and Dining Out: Geography of a Tourism Business. Annals of Tourism Research, 10, 515-545.
[42] Smoyer-Tomic, K. E., Spence, J. C., Raine, K. D., Armhein, C., Cameron, N., Yasenovskiy, V., Cutumisu, N., Hemphill, E., & Healy, J. (2008). The Association between Neighborhood Socioeconomic Status and Exposure to Supermarkets and Fast Food Outlets. Health and Place, 14, 740-754.
[43] Thomadsen, R. (2007). Product Positioning and Competition: The Role of Location in the Fast Food Industry. Marketing Science, 26, 792-804.
https://doi.org/10.1287/mksc.1070.0296
[44] Tokatli, N., & Boyaci, Y. (1997). Internationalization of Retailing in Turkey. New Perspectives on Turkey, 17, 97-128.
https://doi.org/10.1017/S0896634600002776
[45] Tokatli, N., & Boyaci, Y. (1999). The Changing Morphology of Commercial Activity in Istanbul. Cities, 16, 181-193.
[46] TurkStat (1996/2014). Turkish Statistical Instititute, Ankara. www.turkstat.gov.tr
[47] Van Kempen, R., & Marcuse, P. (1997). A New Spatial Order in Cities? American Behavioral Scientists, 41, 285-298.
https://doi.org/10.1177/0002764297041003002
[48] Warde, A., & Marten, L. (1998). Eating Out and the Commercialization of Mental Life. British Food Journal, 100, 147-153.
https://doi.org/10.1108/00070709810207513
[49] Warde, A., Martens, L., & Olsen, V. (1999). Consumption and the Variety: Cultural Omnivorusness, Social Distinction and Dining Out. Sociology, 33, 105-127.
https://doi.org/10.1177/S0038038599000061
[50] Wood, R. C. (1992). Dining Out in the Urban Context. British Food Journal, 94, 3-5.
https://doi.org/10.1108/00070709210022064
[51] Yaprakli, T. S., & Keser, E. (2010). According to Product Groups, the Effects of Global Consumer Culture and Ethnic Identity on Consumption Habits: An Application to Turkey. The Journal of International Social Research, 9, 2248-2264.
https://doi.org/10.17719/jisr.20164317789
[52] Yazgi, B. et al. (2014). Impact of Characteristics of Origin and Destination Provinces on Migration: 1995-2000. European Planning Studies, 22, 1182-1198.
https://doi.org/10.1080/09654313.2013.771620
[53] Zukin, S. (1998). Urban Life Styles: Diversity and Standardization in Spaces of Consumption. Urban Studies, 35, 825-839.
https://doi.org/10.1080/0042098984574

  
comments powered by Disqus
CUS Subscription
E-Mail Alert
CUS Most popular papers
Publication Ethics & OA Statement
CUS News
Frequently Asked Questions
Recommend to Peers
Recommend to Library
Contact Us

Copyright © 2020 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.