Preliminary Study on Bioactive Compounds of Citrus × myrtifolia Rafinesque (Chinotto) to Its Potential Application in Food Industry

.
DOI: 10.4236/fns.2011.27094   PDF   HTML     6,277 Downloads   11,017 Views   Citations

Abstract

The present study investigated for the first time some physical quality attributes of unripe Citrus x myrtifolia Rafinesque which is the ingredient of the popular soft drink Chinotto. Samples for analysis were processed to better reproduce the crude materials used for industrial chinotto extract, discarding part of the juice. Fruit bioactive compounds such as ascorbic acid, carotenoids, chlorophylls, flavonoids and antioxidant capacity were estimated. An important nutritional aspect arose from the data presented was the high concentration of flavonoids (780 mg/100 g FW) and vitamin C (42 mg/100 g FW). A good antioxidant capacity (5872 µM Trolox equivalents/100 g FW) was estimated by oxygen radical absorbing capacity (ORAC). This matrix could be considered as a good nutraceutical source, giving new opportunity to citrus industry.

Share and Cite:

M. Scordino, L. Sabatino, A. Belligno and G. Gagliano, "Preliminary Study on Bioactive Compounds of Citrus × myrtifolia Rafinesque (Chinotto) to Its Potential Application in Food Industry," Food and Nutrition Sciences, Vol. 2 No. 7, 2011, pp. 685-691. doi: 10.4236/fns.2011.27094.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

References

[1] P. Hanelt, R. Büttner and R. Mansfeld, “Mansfeld’s Encyclopedia of Agricultural and Horticultural Crops (except Ornamentals),” Institut für Pflanzengenetik und Kulturpflanzenforschung Gatersleben, Springer, Germany, 2001.
[2] D. Cautela, A. G. Pirrello, C. Espositom and P. Minasi, “Caratteristiche Compositive del Chinotto (Citrus myrtifolia),” Essenze dei Derivati Agrumari, Vol. 74, No. 2, 2004, pp. 51-57.
[3] D. Barreca, E. Bellocco, C. Caristi, U. Leuzzi and G. Gattuso, “Flavonoid Composition and Antioxidant Activity of Juices from Chinotto (Citrus x myrtifolia Raf.) Fruits at Different Ripening Stages,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, Vol. 58, No. 5, 2010, pp. 3031-3036. doi:10.1021/jf9044809
[4] B. S. Patil, G. K. Jayaprakasha, K. N. C. Murthy and A. Vikram, “Bioactive Compounds: Historical Perspectives, Opportunities, and Challenges,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, Vol. 57, No. 18, 2009, pp. 8142-8160. doi:10.1021/jf9000132
[5] A. Keys, “Mediterranean Diet and Public Health: Personal Reflections,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 61, No. 6, 1995, pp. 1321-1323.
[6] E. Tripoli, M. la Guardia, S. Giammanco, D. di Majo and M. Giammanco, “Citrus Flavonoids: Molecular Structure, Biological Activity and Nutritional Properties: A Review,” Food Chemistry, Vol. 104, No. 2, 2007, pp. 466-479. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2006.11.054
[7] A. J. Meléndez-Martínez, I. M. Vicario and F. J. Heredia, “Review: Analysis of Carotenoids in Orange Juice,” Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, Vol. 20, No. 7, 2007, pp. 638-649.
[8] B. Schoefs, “Chlorophyll and Carotenoid Analysis in Food Products. Properties of the Pigments and Methods of Analysis,” Trends in Food Science & Technology, Vol. 13, No. 11, 2002, pp. 361-371. doi:10.1016/S0924-2244(02)00182-6
[9] C. Caristi, E. Bellocco, C. Gargiulli, G. Toscano and U. Leuzzi, “Flavone-di-C-Glycosides in Citrus Juices from Southern Italy,” Food Chemistry, Vol. 95, No. 3, 2006, pp. 431-437. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2005.01.031
[10] W. B. Davis, “Determination of Flavanones in Citrus Fruits,” Analytical Chemistry, Vol. 19, No. 7, 1947, pp. 476-477. doi:10.1021/ac60007a016
[11] S. W. Jeffrey and G. F. Humphrey, “New Spectrophotometric Equations for Determining Chlorophylls a, b, c1 and c2 in Higher Plants, Algae, and Natural Phytoplankton,” Biochemie und Physiologie der Pflanzen, Vol. 167, 1975, pp. 191-194.
[12] K. Kampfenkel, M. van Montagu and D. Inzé, “Extraction and Determination of Ascorbate and Dehydroascorbate from Plant Tissue,” Analytical Biochemistry, Vol. 225, No. 1, 1995, pp. 165-167. doi:10.1006/abio.1995.1127
[13] J. Wang, H. Zhang and R. D. Allen, “Overexpression of an Arabidopsis Peroxisomal Ascorbate Peroxidase Gene in Tabacco Increases Protection against Oxidative Stress,” Plant Cell Physiology, Vol. 40, No. 7, 1999, pp. 725-732.
[14] M. M. Bradford, “A Rapid and Sensitive Method for the Quantitation of Microgram Quantities of Protein Utilizing the Principle of Protein of Protein-Dye Binding,” Analytical Biochemistry, Vol. 72, 1976, pp. 248-254.
[15] B. Ou, M. Hampsch-Woodill and R. L. Prior, “Development and Validation of an Improved Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity Assay Using Fluorescein as the Fluorescent Probe,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, Vol. 49, No. 10. 2001, pp. 4619-4626. doi:10.1021/jf010586o
[16] R. M. Horowitz, “The Citrus Flavonoids,” In: W. B. Sinclair, Ed., The Orange. Its Biochemistry and Physiology, University of California, Division of Agricultural Sciences, 1961, pp. 334-372.
[17] M. L. Calabro, V. Galtieri, P. Cutroneo, S. Tommasini, P. Ficarra and R. Ficarra, “Study of the Extraction Procedure by Experimental Design and Validation of a LC Method for Determination of Flavonoids in Citrus Bergamia Juice,” Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis, Vol. 35, No. 2, 2004, pp. 349-363. doi:10.1016/S0731-7085(03)00585-5
[18] D. C. Abeysinghe, X. Li, C. Sun, W. Zhang, C. Zhou and K. Chen, “Bioactive Compounds and Antioxidant Capacities in Different Edible Tissues of Citrus Fruit of Four Species,” Food Chemistry, Vol. 104, No. 4, 2007, pp. 1338-1344. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2007.01.047
[19] M. S. Ladaniya, “Citrus Fruit: Biology, Technology and Evaluation,” Academic Press, Waltham, Massachusetts, 2007.
[20] S. K. Eilati, P. Budowski and S. P. Monselise, “Carotenoid Changes in the Shamouti Orange Peel during Chloroplast-Chromoplast Transformation on and off the Tree,” Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol. 26, No. 4, 1975, pp. 624-632. doi:10.1093/jxb/26.4.624
[21] M. J. Rodrigo and L. Zacarias, “Effect of Postharvest Ethylene Treatment on Carotenoids Accumulation and the Expression of Carotenoid Biosynthetic Genes in the Flavedo of Orange (Citrus Sinensis L. Osbeck) Fruit,” Postharvest Biology and Technology, 2007, Vol. 43, No. 1, pp. 14-22. doi:10.1016/j.postharvbio.2006.07.008
[22] H. K. Lichtenthaler, C. Buschmann, M. D?ll, H.-J. Fietz, T. Bach, U. Kozel, D. Meier and U. Rahmsdorf, “Photosynthetic Activity, Chloroplast Ultrastructure, and Leaf Characteristics of High-Light and Low-Light Plants and of Sun and Shade Leaves,” Photosynthesis Research, 1981, Vol. 2, No. 2, pp. 115-141. doi:10.1007/BF00028752
[23] B. Alquezar, M. J. Rodrigo and L. Zacarías, “Regulation of Carotenoid Biosynthesis during Fruit Maturation in the Red-Fleshed Orange Mutant Cara Cara,” Phytochemistry, Vol. 69, No. 10, 2008, pp. 1997-2007.
[24] S. T. Mayne, “β-Carotene, Carotenoids and Disease Prevention in Humans,” The FASEB Journal, Vol. 10, No. 7, 1996, pp. 690-701.
[25] N. Martí, P. Mena, J. A. Cánovas, V. Micol and D. Saura, “Vitamin C and the Role of Citrus Juices as Functional Food,” Natural Product Communication, Vol. 4, 2009, pp. 677-700.
[26] J. Serrano, I. Go?i and F. Saura-Calixto, “Food Antioxidant Capacity Determined by Chemical Methods may Underestimate the Physiological Antioxidant Capacity,” Food Research International, Vol. 40, No. 1, 2007, pp. 15-21. doi:10.1016/j.foodres.2006.07.010
[27] H. Wang, G. Cao and R. L. Prior, “Total Antioxidant Capacity of Fruits,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, Vol. 44, No. 3, 1996, pp. 701-705. doi:10.1021/jf950579y
[28] I. Klimczak, M. Malecka, M. Szlachta and A. Gliszczynska-Swiglo, “Effect of Storage on the Content of Polyphenols, Vitamin C and the Antioxidant Activity of Orange Juices,” Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, Vol. 20, No. 3-4, 2007, pp. 313-322. doi:10.1016/j.jfca.2006.02.012
[29] Y. Kiselova, D. Ivanova, T. Chervenkov, D. Gerova, B. Galunska and T. Yankova, “Correlation between the in Vitro Antioxidant Activity and Polyphenol Content of Aqueous Extracts from Bulgarian Herbs,” Phototherapy Research, Vol. 20, No. 11, 2006, pp. 961-965.
[30] G. K. Jayaprakasha and B. S. Patil, “In Vitro Evaluation of the Antioxidant Activities in Fruit Extracts from Citron and Blood Orange,” Food Chemistry, Vol. 101, No. 1, 2007, pp. 410-418.
[31] G. Cao, E. Sofic and R. Prior, “Antioxidant and Prooxidant Behavior of Flavonoids: Structure-Activity Relationships,” Free Radical Biology and Medicine, Vol. 22, No. 5, 1997, pp. 749-760. doi:10.1016/S0891-5849(96)00351-6
[32] C. Rice-Evans, N.J. Miller and G. Paganda, “Structure-Antioxidant Activity Relationship of Flavonoids and Phenolic Acids,” Free Radical and Medicine, Vol. 20, No. 7, 1996, pp. 933-956.
[33] T. M. Rababah, K. I. Ereifej and L. Howard, “Effect of Ascorbic Acid and Dehydration on Concentrations of Total Phenolics, Antioxidant Capacity, Anthocyanins, and Color in Fruits,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, Vol. 53, No. 11, 2005, pp. 4444-4447. doi:10.1021/jf0502810
[34] R. L. Prior, G. Cao, A. Martin, E. Sofic, J. McEwen, C. O’Brien, N. Lischner, M. Ehlenfeldt, W. Kalt, G. Krewer and C. M. Mainland, “Antioxidant Capacity as Influenced by Total Phenolic and Anthocyanin Content, Maturity, and Variety of Vaccinium Species,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, Vol. 46, No. 7, 1998, pp. 2686-2693. doi:10.1021/jf980145d
[35] P. Rapisarda, S. Fabroni, S. Peterek, G. Russo and H. Mock, “Juice of New Citrus Hybrids (Citrus clementina Hort. ex Tan. × C. sinensis L. Osbeck) as a Source of Natural Antioxidants,” Food Chemistry, Vol. 117, No. 2, 2009, pp. 212-218. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2009.03.101
[36] H. Wang, G. Cao and R. L. Prior, “Oxygen Radical Absorbing Capacity of Anthocyanins,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, Vol. 45, No. 2, 1997, pp. 304-309. doi:10.1021/jf960421t
[37] F. Shahidi and N. Marian, “Phenolics in Food and Nutraceuticals,” CRC Press, Boca Raton, 2003.
[38] M. Scordino, A. di Mauro, A. Passerini and E. Maccarone, “Selective Recovery of Anthocyanins and Hydroxycinnamates from a Byproduct of Citrus Processing,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, Vol. 53, No. 3, 2005, pp. 651-658.
[39] A. di Mauro, B. Fallico, A. Passerini and E. Maccarone, “Waste Water from Citrus Processing as a Source of Hesperidin by Concentration on Styrene-Divinylbenzene Resin,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, Vol. 48, No. 6, 2000, pp. 2291-2295. doi:10.1021/jf990992w
[40] G. Britton, S. Liaaen-Jensen and H. Pfander, “Carotenoids. Vol. 1A: Isolation and Analysis,” Birkhauser, Basel, 1995.

  
comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2020 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.