Share This Article:

Varietal Characterisation and Taxonomic Evaluation of Sweet Potato (Ipomoea batatas) Using Macro- and Micromorphological Evidence

DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1101757    1,005 Downloads   1,647 Views   Citations

ABSTRACT

Taxonomic audit was carried out on three varieties of sweet potato (Ipomoea batata) in north central part of Nigeria. Ten (10) tubers of the representative samples of three varieties of sweet potato (Purple, Yellow and White varieties) were collected from different locations within the north central part of Nigeria and planted in the research farm of the University of Agriculture, Makurdi, Nigeria. At full maturity, they were characterized using gross macro- and micromorphological features. Mean values of all quantitative parameters were computed for each variety. Qualitative and quantitative data generated were analysed by using SPSS software 20.0 version. Box plots and charts were constructed to reveal level of variations at a glance. Dendrogram was generated using furthest neighbor method to reveal the phylogenetic relationships among the varieties. Statistical test of significance was performed on major variable characters. From the results, the three varieties varied significantly in their epidermal characters such as stomatal types, stomatal indices and number of epidermal cells. Stomata types were tetracytic, anisocytic, and paracytic in all but the Purple variety had an additional stomatal type (anomocytic). Macroscopically, variation was observed with respect to some qualitative characters (leaf apices, leaf shape, leaf margins, leaf bases, leaf colour, stem colour and root colour) and quantitative characters (leaf sizes, petiole length, stem diameter, root sizes and plant height) at significant levels (p < 0.05). As a result, dendrogram classified the three varieties where the yellow and purple types were widely divergent as two separate species under the Genus Ipomoea. The white type could be seen as a variety of the yellow type based on their close relationship. The synergistic information obtained from both morphological and anatomical sources of evidence in this report has yielded a reliable result that may call for appropriate nomenclatural assignments. Hence, the authors suggest the following nomenclatures: Ipomea batatas var makurdi (Yellow variety); Ipomoea batatas var lafia (White variety) and Ipomoea aguoru (Purple variety).

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

Aguoru, C. , Uhia, P. and Olasan, J. (2015) Varietal Characterisation and Taxonomic Evaluation of Sweet Potato (Ipomoea batatas) Using Macro- and Micromorphological Evidence. Open Access Library Journal, 2, 1-7. doi: 10.4236/oalib.1101757.

References

[1] Dutta, A.C. (2007) Botany for Degree Students. Revised 6th Edition, Oxford University Press, New Delhi, 570 p.
[2] Purseglove, J.W. (1968) Tropical Crops: Dicotyledons, Longman Scientific and Technical. John Wiley and Sons Inc., New York.
[3] Woolfe, J.A. (1992) Sweet Potato: And Untapped Food Resource. Cambridge University Press and the International Potato Center (CIP), Cambridge.
[4] Gad, L. and George, T. (2009) The Sweet Potato. 391-425.
[5] Nishiyama, I. (1971) Evolution and Domestication of the Sweet Potato. The Botanical Magazine (Tokyo), 84, 377-387.
[6] O’Brien, P.J. (1972) The Sweet Potato: Its Origin and Dispersal. American Anthropologist, 74, 343-365.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1525/aa.1972.74.3.02a00070
[7] Austin, D.F. (1979) An Infrageneric Classification for Ipomoea (Convolvulaceae). Taxon, 28, 359-361.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1219747
[8] Austin, D.F. and Huáman, Z. (1996) A Synopsis of Ipomoea (Convolvulaceae) in the Americas. Taxon, 45, 3-38.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1222581
[9] Rhoda, A.N. (1994) Nutrition Kenyan Sweet Potato Recipes. Kenya Agricultural Research Institute, 1-6.
[10] Villareal, D., Apavian, C., Kushner, R. and Klein, S. (2005) Obesity in Older Adults: Technical Review and Position Statement of the American Society for Nutrition and NAASO. The Obesity Society. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 82, 923-934.
[11] Austin, D.F. (1988) The Taxonomy, Evolution and Genetic Diversity of Sweet Potatoes and Related Wild Species. In: Gregory, P., Ed., Exploration, Maintenance and Utilization of Sweet Potato Genetic Resources, Report of the 1st Sweet Potato Planning Conference 1987, International Potato Center, Lima, 27-59.
[12] CIP (International Potato Centre) (1987) Exploration Maintenance and Utilization of Sweet Potato Genetic Resources. Report of the 1st Sweet Potato Planning Conference, Lima, 369.
[13] CIP (1996) Sweet Potato Facts. International Potato Center, Lima.
[14] Zhang, D.P., Ghislain, M., Huaman, Z. and Golmirzaie, A. (1996) RAPD Analyses of Genetic Diversity in Sweet Potato Cultivars from South America and Papua New Guinea. International Plant Genome Conference, San Diego, 14-18 January 1996, 93-103.
[15] Abdulraham, A.A and Oladele, F.A. (2003) Stomata Complex Types, Size, Density, in Some Vegetable Species in Nigeria. Nigerian Journal of Botany, 16, 144-150.
[16] Metcalfe, C.R. and Chalk, L. (1979) Anatomy of Dicotyledonous. 2nd Edition, Clarendon Press, Oxford, 456-473.
[17] Aguoru, C.U., Omoigui, L.O. and Olasan, J.O. (2015) Molecular Characterization of SolanumSpecies (Solanum aethiopicum Complex; Solanum macrocarpon and Solanum anguivi) Using Multiplex RAPD Primers. Journal of Plant Studies, 4, 1-8.
http://dx.doi.org/10.5539/jps.v4n1p27
[18] Mbagwu, F.N and Nwachukwu, C.U. (2008) Comparative Leaf Epidermal Studies on S. macrocarpon and S. nigrum. Research Journal of Botany, 3, 45-48.
[19] Aguoru, C.U. and Okoli, B.E. (2008) Seed Coat Anatomy of Momordica (Cucurbitaceae) in Parts of Tropical Western Africa. International Journal of Tropical Agriculture and Food Systems, 2, 29-33
[20] Aguoru, C.U. and Okoli, B.E. (2012) Comparative Stem and Petiole Anatomy of West African Species of Momordica L (Cucurbitaceae). African Journal of Plant Science, 16, 403-409.
http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPS11.309
[21] Bohac, J.R., Jones, A. and Austin, D.F. (1992) Unreduced Pollen: Proposed Mechanism of Polyploidization of Sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas). HortScience, 27, 611.

  
comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2019 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.