Predictive Factors for Smartphone Dependence: Relationship to Demographic Characteristics, Chronotype, and Depressive State of University Students


We investigated factors contributing to smartphone dependence. To 196 medical university students, we administered a set of self-reporting questionnaires designed to evaluate demographic characteristics, smartphone dependence, chronotype, and depressive state. Smartphone dependence was evaluated using the Wakayama Smartphone-Dependence Scale (WSDS) with 3 subscales: Subscale 1, immersion in Internet communication; Subscale 2, using a smartphone for extended periods of time and neglecting social obligations and other tasks; Subscale 3, using a smartphone while doing something else and neglect of etiquette. Multiple regression analyses revealed that living in a family, eveningness, and presence of depression were associated with Subscale 1, that living in a family and eveningness were also associated with Subscale 2, and that being a man was associated with Subscale 3. These findings suggest that smartphone dependence can be predicted by factors such as gender, mode of residence, chronotype, or depressive state.

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Toda, M. , Nishio, N. and Takeshita, T. (2015) Predictive Factors for Smartphone Dependence: Relationship to Demographic Characteristics, Chronotype, and Depressive State of University Students. Open Journal of Preventive Medicine, 5, 456-462. doi: 10.4236/ojpm.2015.512051.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


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