Comparison of Three Single-Nozzle Operator-Carried Spray Applicators for Whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) Management on Squash


Whiteflies cause problems in vegetable production on a global scale. The primary worldwide whitefly pest is Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius). Insecticides are commonly used to mitigate the whitefly problem in vegetable crops. In limited-resource crop production, operator-carried spray applicators are commonly used for pesticide treatments. Three single-nozzle operator-carried spray applicators were assessed for their efficacies for whitefly (B. tabaci) control on summer squash (Cucurbita pepo L.) in Egypt. Each knapsack spray equipment was evaluated with five biorational and conventional insecticides. Counts of whitefly nymphs (first, second, third and fourth instars) on leaf samples were taken on 3, 9, 15 and 21 days after treatments with the insecticides. Nymphal mortality varied about 10% among the three spray equipment treatments. The Economy Micro Ulva sprayer resulted in significantly more nymphal mortality as compared with the Arimitsu sprayer and the CZP-3 sprayer, respectively. All insecticides greatly suppressed the whitefly populations; mean mortality ranged from 73% to 95% for all nymphs combined by day for a given treatment. These results provide pest management practitioners with performance assessment of the three operator-carried pesticide applicators for whitefly management with selected foliar insecticides.

Share and Cite:

Simmons, A. , Abd-Rabou, S. and Hindy, M. (2015) Comparison of Three Single-Nozzle Operator-Carried Spray Applicators for Whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) Management on Squash. Agricultural Sciences, 6, 1381-1386. doi: 10.4236/as.2015.611133.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Martin, J.H. and Mound, L.A. (2007) An Annotated Check List of the World’s Whiteflies (Insecta: Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae). Zootaxa, 1492, 1-84.
[2] Brown, J.K. (1994) Current Status of Bemisia tabaci as a Plant Pest and Virus Vector in Agroecosystems Worldwide. FAO Plant Protection Bulletin, 42, 3-32.
[3] Byrne, D.N., Bellows Jr., T.S. and Parrella, M.P. (1990) Whiteflies in Agricultural Systems. In: Gerling, D., Ed., Whiteflies: Their Bionomics, Pest Status, and Management, Intercept Ltd., Andover, Hants, 227-261.
[4] Abd-Rabou, S. and Simmons, A.M. (2014) Survey of Natural Enemies of Whiteflies (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) in Egypt with New Local and World Records. Entomological News, 124, 38-56.
[5] Simmons, A.M., Harrison, H.F. and Ling, K.-S. (2008) Forty-Nine New Host Plant Species for Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae). Entomological Science, 11, 385-390.
[6] Navas-Castillo, J., Fiallo-Olivé, E. and Sánchez-Campos, S. (2011) Emerging Virus Diseases Transmitted by Whiteflies. Annual Review of Phytopathology, 49, 219-248.
[7] Simmons, A.M. (1994) Oviposition on Vegetables by Bemisia tabaci (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae): Temporal and Leaf Surface Factors. Environmental Entomology, 23, 382-389.
[8] Dinsdale, A., Cook, L., Riginos, C., Buckley, Y.M. and De Barro, P.J. (2010) Refined Global Analysis of Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Aleyrodoidea: Aleyrodidae) Mitochondrial Cytochrome Oxidase 1 to Identify Species Level Genetic Boundaries. Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 103, 196-208.
[9] Abd-Rabou, S. (1999) New Records on Whiteflies in Egypt. Egyptian Journal of Agricultural Research, 77, 1143-1146.
[10] Gabir, I. (2004) Spraying Application of Pesticides and the Environment—A Micro-Data Base under Preparation. Annales UMCS, Section E, 4, 1549-1556.
[11] Reimer, A.P. and Prokopy, L.S. (2012) Environmental Attitudes and Drift Reduction Behavior among Commercial Pesticide Applicators in a U.S. Agricultural Landscape. Egyptian Journal of Environmental Management, 113, 361-369.
[12] Reda, F.A.B., Mohamed, A.H., Noha, A.M.G, Nevein, S.E.A. and Rehab, A.A.D. (2014) Field Comparison between Droplet Distribution and the Bioresidual Activity of Different Insecticides against Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd) by Using Certain Ground Spraying Equipment on Cotton Plants. Egyptian Academic Journal of Biological Science, 7, 185-193.
[13] Gabir, I. (1995) Spraying Application of Pesticide with a Special Reference to the Rates of Electrostatics. Lectures and Note. Faculty of Agriculture, Ain Shams University, Cairo, 217 p. (In Arabic)
[14] Hindy, M.A. (1992) Qualitative Distribution of Watery Dyed Spray Produced by Certain Ground Sprayers in Cotton. Bulletin of the Entomological Society of Egypt, 19, 221-227.
[15] SAS Institute (2012) SAS/STAT Version 9.4. SAS Institute, Cary.
[16] Abd-Rabou, S. (1997) Host, Distribution and Vernacular Names of Whiteflies (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) in Egypt. Moshtohor, Annals of Agricultural Science, 35, 1029-1048.

Copyright © 2022 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.