Encapsulated Water Hammer: Theoretical/Experimental Study


Water hammer phenomenon involves the transformation of kinetic energy in pressure energy, this transformation occurs as the fluid conditions change inside the pipe in quite a short time. Industry requires to affront frequent flow interruptions in pipe systems due to the closing of valves or stopping of pumping equipment. This phenomenon can initiate serious damages like destruction of the pipe system involving leakage of the working fluid to the environment. If the system operates in a fragile environment, as in cold regions, concern about the consequences of leakage increases due to the variation of physical properties of fluid as well as the pipe material as a function of the temperature. Water hammer effects can be controlled focusing efforts on reducing the pressure increment that takes place once the phenomenon is presented. Some methods try to reduce the time of closure or the rate of change before the closure using special valves, others install additional elements to absorb the pressure surge and dissipate energy, others install relief valves to release the pressure, and others try to split the problem is smaller sections by installing check valves with dashpot or non-return valves. Splitting the pipeline into shorter sections is often used to help preventing the pipeline length of water falling back after a pump stops. In this paper the numerical results of maximum and minimum pressure values at both ends of a closed section are compared to experimental data. The numerical results follow the experimental trends.

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Polanco, G. , Virk, M. , Mughal, U. , Victor, S. , José, D. , Antonio, V. and Orlando, A. (2015) Encapsulated Water Hammer: Theoretical/Experimental Study. World Journal of Engineering and Technology, 3, 290-295. doi: 10.4236/wjet.2015.33C043.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


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