Diversity and Origin of Indigenous Village Chickens (Gallus gallus) from Chad, Central Africa

DOI: 10.4236/abb.2015.69062   PDF   HTML   XML   2,797 Downloads   3,555 Views   Citations


In this study we assess the maternal genetic diversity and origin of indigenous village chickens from Chad complementing previous phenotypic and biometric measurements studies. We analysed a 387 bp fragment of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) D-loop region of 181 village chickens from three populations of western Chad (Lake Chad/Hadjer Lamis), central Chad (Guera) and south-west Chad (Pala) and at different poultry markets in N'Djamena. Twenty-five polymorphic sites and 20 haplotypes are identified. Phylogenetic and network analyses group all chicken into a single mtDNA haplogroup D. Comparison with reference sequences shows that this haplogroup is the commonest one observed in chicken and it supports the Indian subcontinent as the maternal center of origin for the village chicken in Chad. Little genetic variation was found within and between populations which is in agreement with a recent and a maternal founding effect for the chicken in the country.

Share and Cite:

Hassaballah, K. , Zeuh, V. , A. Lawal, R. , Hanotte, O. and Sembene, M. (2015) Diversity and Origin of Indigenous Village Chickens (Gallus gallus) from Chad, Central Africa. Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology, 6, 592-600. doi: 10.4236/abb.2015.69062.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] FAOSTAT (2012) FAO Statistical Yearbook 2012. FAO, Rome.
[2] Garrigus, W.P. (2007) Poultry Farming. Encyclopaedia Britannica.
[3] Crawford, R.D. (1990) Origin and History of Poultry Species. In: Crawford. R.D., Ed., Poultry Breeding and Genetics. Elsevier, Amsterdam.
[4] Mwacharo, J.M., Bjørnstad, G., Han, J.L. and Hanotte, O. (2013) The History of African Village Chickens: An Archaeological and Molecular Perspective. African Archaeological Review, Published Online.
[5] MacDonald, K.C. and Edwards, D.N. (1993) Chicken in Africa: The Importance of Qasr Ibrim. Antiquity, 67, 584-590.
[6] Haller, A. (1954) Die Gräber und Grüfte von Assur. Berlin, Germany.
[7] Rivallain, J. and Van Neer, W. (1983) Inventory of the Archaeological and Faunal Material at Koyom, South Chad. Anthropologie, Masson editor Nr. 88, 441-448.
[8] Guèye, E.F. (1998) Village Egg and Fowl Meat Production in Africa. World’s Poultry Science Journal, 54, 73-86.
[9] Guèye, E.F. and Bessei, W. (1995) La poule locale sénégalaise dans le contexte villageois et les possibilités d’amélioration de ses performances. In: Sustainable Rural Poultry Production. Proceedings of an International Workshop, 13-16 June 1995, the International Livestock Research Institute, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 112-123.
[10] Liu, Y.P., Wu, G.S., Yao, Y.G., Miao, Y.W., Luikart, G., Baig, M., Beja-Pereira, A., Ding, Z.L., Alanichamy, M.G. and Zhang, Y.P. (2006) Multiple Maternal Origins of Chickens: Out of the Asian Jungles. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 38, 12-19.
[11] Mwacharo, J.M., Bjørnstad, G., Mobegi, V., Nomura, K., Hanada, H., Amano, T., Jianlin, H. and Hanotte, O. (2011) Mitochondrial DNA Reveals Multiple Introductions of Domestic Chicken in East Africa. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 58, 374-382.
[12] Razafindraibe, H., Mobegi, V.A., Ommeh, S.C., Rakotondravao, G., Bjørnstad, G., Hanotte, O. and Jianlin, H. (2008) Mitochondrial DNA Origin of Indigenous Malagasy Chicken. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1149, 77-79.
[13] Muchadeyi, F.C., Eding, H., Simianer, H., Wollny, C.B.A., Groeneveld, E. and Weigend, S. (2008) Mitochondrial DNA D-Loop Sequences Suggest a Southeast Asian and Indian Origin of Zimbabwean Village Chicken. Animal Genetics, 39, 615-622.
[14] Mtileni, B.J., Muchadeyi, F.C., Maiwashe, A., Chimonyo, M., Groeneveld, E., Weigend, S. and Dzama, K. (2011) Diversity and Origin of South African Chicken. Poultry Science, 90, 2189-2194.
[15] Dana, N., Megens, H.J., Crooijmans, R.P.M.A., Hanotte, O., Mwacharo, J.M., Groenen, M.A. and Van Arendonk, J.A. (2010) East Asian Contributions to Dutch Traditional and Western Commercial Chickens Inferred from mtDNA Analysis. Animal Genetics, 42, 125-133.
[16] Ceccobelli, S., Di Lorenzo, P., Hovirag, L., Monteagudo, L., Tejedor, M.T. and Castellini, C. (2015) Genetic Diversity and Phylogeographic Structure of Sixteen Mediterranean Chicken Breeds Assessed with Microsatellites and Mitochondrial DNA. Livestock Science, 175, 27-36.
[17] Adebambo, A.O., Mobegi, V., Mwacharo, A., Oladejo, J.M., Adewale, B.M., Ilori, R.A., Makanjuola, L.O., Afolayan, B.O., Bjørnstad, O., Jianlin, H. and Hanotte, O. (2010) Lack of Phylogeographic Structure in Nigerian Village Chickens Revealed by Mitochondrial DNA D-Loop Sequence Analysis. International Journal of Poultry Science, 9, 503-507.
[18] Hassaballah, K., Zeuh, V. and Sembene, M. (2014) Phenotypic Diversity of Local Chickens (Gallus domesticus) in Three Ecological Zones of Chad. International Journal of Current Research in Biosciences and Plant Biology, 1, 1-8.
[19] Hassaballah, K., Zeuh, V., Mopate, L.Y. and Sembene, M. (2015) Caractérisation morpho-biométrique des poules (Gallus gallus) locales dans trois zones agro-écologiques du Tchad. Livestock Research for Rural Development, 27, Article No.: 53.
[20] Chester, N. and Marshak, D.R. (1993) Dimethyl Sulfoxide-Mediated Primer Tm Reduction: A Method for Analyzing the Role of Renaturation Temperature in the Polymerase Chain Reaction. Analytical Biochemistry, 209, 284-290.
[21] Nord, K., Gunneriusson, E., Ringdahl, J., Ståhl, S., Uhlén, M. and Nygren, P.A. (1997) Binding Proteins Selected from Combinatorial Libraries of an α-Helical Bacterial Receptor Domain. Nature Biotechnology, 15, 772-777.
[22] Wikman, M., Steffen, A.C., Gunneriusson, E., Tolmachev, V., Adams, G.P., Carlsson, J. and Ståhl, S. (2004) Selection and Characterization of HER2/Neu-Binding Affibody Ligands. Protein Engineering, 17, 455-462.
[23] Vogelstein, B. and Gillespie, D. (1979) Preparative and Analytical Purification of DNA from Agarose. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 76, 615-619.
[24] Komiyama, T., Ikeo, K. and Gojobori, T. (2003) Where Is the Origin of the Japanese Gamecocks? Gene, 317, 195-202.
[25] Thompson, J.D., Gibson, T.J., Plewniak, F., Jeanmougin, F. and Higgins, D.G. (1997) The ClustalX Windows Interface: Flexible Strategies for Multiple Sequence Alignment Aided by Quality Analysis Tools. Nucleic Acids Research, 25, 4876-4882.
[26] Tamura, K., Stecher, G., Peterson, D., Filipski, A. and Kumar, S. (2013) MEGA6: Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis Version 6.0. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 30, 2725-2729.
[27] Bandelt, H.J., Forster, P. and Röhl, A. (1999) Median-Joining Networks for Inferring Intraspecific Phylogenies. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 16, 37-48.
[28] Librado, P. and Rozas, J. (2009) DnaSP v5: A Software for Comprehensive Analysis of DNA Polymorphic Data. Bioinformatics, 25, 1451-1452.
[29] Wani, C.E., Yousif, I.A., Ibrahim, M.E. and Musa, H.H. (2014) Molecular Characterization of Sudanese and Southern Sudanese Chicken Breeds Using mtDNA D-Loop. Genetics Research, 2014, Article ID: 928420.
[30] FAO (2009) Characteri-zation of Domestic Chicken and Duck Production Systems in Egypt. Prepared by Haitham H., Mohamed Kosba and Olaf Thieme. AHL-Promoting Strategies for Prevention and Control of HPAI, Rome.
[31] Youssao, I.A.K., Tobada, P.C., Koutinhouin, B.G., Dahouda, M., Idrissou, N.D., Bonou, G.A., Tougan, U.P., Ahounou, S., Yapi-Gnaoré, V., Kayang, B., Rognon, X. and Tixier-Boichard, M. (2010) Phenotypic Characterisation and Molecular Polymorphism of Indigenous Poultry Populations of the Species Gallus gallus of Savannah and Forest Ecotypes of Benin. African Journal of Biotechnology, 9, 369-381.
[32] Daikwo, I.S., Okpe, A.A. and Ocheja, J.O. (2011) Phenotypic Characterization of Local Chickens in Dekina. International Journal of Poultry Science, 10, 444-447.
[33] Melesse, A. and Negesse, T. (2011) Phenotypic and Morphological Characterization of Indigenous Chicken Populations in Southern Region of Ethiopia. Animal Genetic Resources Information, 49, 19-31.
[34] Eriksson, J., Larson, G., Gunnarsson, U., Bed’hom, B., Tixier-Boichard, M., Strömstedt, L., Wright, D., Jungerius, A., Vereijken, A., Randi, E., Jensen, P. and Andersson, L. (2008) Identification of the Yellow Skin Gene Reveals a Hybrid Origin of the Domestic Chicken. PLoS Genetics, 4, e1000010.
[35] El-Safty, S.A. (2012) Determination of Some Quantitative and Qualitative Traits in Libyan Native Fowls. Egypt. Poultry Science, 32, 247-258.
[36] Elkhaiat, I., Kawabe, K., Saleh, K., Younis, H., Nofal, R., Masuda, S. and Shimogori, T. (2014) Genetic Diversity of Egyptian Native Chickens Using mtDNA D-Loop Region. Journal of Poultry Science, 51, 359-363.

comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2020 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.