Molecular Markers Associated with Ph-3 Gene Conferring Late Blight Resistance in Tomato


Late blight (LB), caused by the oomycete Phytophthora infestans, is one of the most devastating diseases of tomato. Three major genes Ph-1, Ph-2 and Ph-3 conferring resistance to LB have been identified and mapped to the chromosomes 7, 10 and 9, respectively. However, PCR-based molecular markers associated with these genes are limited. Molecular markers are extremely useful in the screening and selection of tomato lines for the development of LB resistant genotypes. The objective of this study was to identify molecular markers associated with Ph-3 gene conferring LB resistance in tomato. Four co-dominant markers were found to be associated with Ph-3, all of which were sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) type. Breeding lines and cultivars were inoculated with a field isolate of Phytophthora infestans to collect phenotypic data on disease resistance. Genotypic data from molecular markers associated with Ph-3 were in close agreement with the phenotypic data for the lines tested. With the verification of genotypic data from novel molecular markers in known genotypes supported by phenotypic data, the novel molecular markers may be useful in screening tomato populations aiming to develop LB resistant genotypes or cloning the LB resistant genes.

Share and Cite:

Panthee, D. , Gardner, R. , Ibrahem, R. and Anderson, C. (2015) Molecular Markers Associated with Ph-3 Gene Conferring Late Blight Resistance in Tomato. American Journal of Plant Sciences, 6, 2144-2150. doi: 10.4236/ajps.2015.613216.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Peirce, L.C. (1971) Linkage Tests with Ph Conditioning Resistance to Race 0, Phytophthora infestans. Report of the Tomato Genetics Cooperative, 21, 30.
[2] Moreau, P., Thoquet, P., Olivier, J., Laterrot, H. and Grimsley, N. (1998) Genetic Mapping of Ph-2, a Single Locus Controlling Partial Resistance to Phytophthora infestans in Tomato. Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions, 11, 259-269.
[3] Gallegly, M.E. (1960) Resistance to the Late Blight Fungus in Tomato. Proceedings of Plant Science Seminar, Campbell Soup Company, Camden, USA, 113-135.
[4] Black, L.L., Wang, T.C., Hanson, P.M. and Chen, J.T. (1996) Late Blight Resistance in Four Wild Tomato Accessions: Effectiveness in Diverse Locations and Inheritance of Resistance. Phytopathology, 86, S24.
[5] Goodwin, S.B., Schneider, R.E. and Fry, W.E. (1995) Use of Cellulose-Acetate Electrophoresis for Rapid Identification of Allozyme Genotypes of Phytophthora infestans. Plant Disease, 79, 1181-1185.
[6] Chunwongse, J., Chunwongse, C., Black, L. and Hanson, P. (2002) Molecular Mapping of the Ph-3 Gene for Late Blight Resistance in Tomato. Journal of Horticultural Science & Biotechnology, 77, 281-286.
[7] Zhang, C.Z., Liu, L., Zheng, Z., Sun, Y.Y., Zhou, L.X., Yang, Y.H., Cheng, F., Zhang, Z.H., Wang, X.W., Huang, S.W., Xie, B.Y., Du, Y.C., Bai, Y.L. and Li, J.M. (2013) Fine Mapping of the Ph-3 Gene Conferring Resistance to Late Blight (Phytophthora infestans) in Tomato. Theoretical and Applied Genetics, 126, 2643-2653.
[8] Zhang, C.Z., Liu, L., Wang, X.X., Vossen, J., Li, G.C., Li, T., Zheng, Z., Gao, J.C., Guo, Y.M., Visser, R.G.F., Li, J.M., Bai, Y.L. and Du, Y.C. (2014) The Ph-3 Gene from Solanum pimpinellifolium Encodes CC-NBS-LRR Protein Conferring Resistance to Phytophthora infestans. Theoretical and Applied Genetics, 127, 1353-1364.
[9] Park, Y., Hwang, J., Kim, K., Kang, J., Kim, B., Xu, S. and Ahn, Y. (2013) Development of the Gene-Based SCARs for the Ph-3 Locus, Which Confers Late Blight Resistance in Tomato. Scientia Horticulturae, 164, 9-16.
[10] Robbins, M.D., Masud, M.a.T., Panthee, D.R., Gardner, C.O., Francis, D. and Stevens, M.A. (2010) Marker-Assisted Selection for Coupling Phase Resistance to Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus and Phytophthora infestans (Late Blight) in Tomato. HortScience, 45, 1424-1428.
[11] Kim, M.J. and Mutschler, M.A. (2005) Transfer to Processing Tomato and Characterization of Late Blight Resistance Derived from Solanum pimpinellifolium L. L3708. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science, 130, 877-884.
[12] Lee, S.J., Kelley, B.S., Damasceno, C.M.B., John, B.S., Kim, B.S., Kim, B.D. and Rose, J.K.C. (2006) A Functional Screen to Characterize the Secretomes of Eukaryotic Pathogens and Their Hosts in Planta. Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions, 19, 1368-1377.
[13] Gardner, R.G. and Panthee, D.R. (2010) “Plum Regal” Fresh-Market Plum Tomato Hybrid and Its Parents, NC 25P and NC 30P. HortScience, 45, 824-825.
[14] Panthee, D.R. and Gardner, R.G. (2010) “Mountain Merit”: A Late Blight-Resistant Large-Fruited Tomato Hybrid. HortScience, 45, 1547-1548.
[15] Fulton, T.M., Chunwongse, J. and Tanksley, S.D. (1995) Microprep Protocol for Extraction of DNA from Tomato and Other Herbaceous Plants. Plant Molecular Biology Reporter, 13, 207-209.
[16] Panthee, D.R. and Gardner, R.G. (2014) “Mountain Rouge”: A Pink-Fruited, Heirloom-Type Hybrid Tomato and Its Parent Line NC 161L. HortScience, 49, 1463-1464.
[17] Foolad, M.R., Merk, H.L. and Ashrafi, H. (2008) Genetics, Genomics and Breeding of Late Blight and Early Blight Resistance in Tomato. Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences, 27, 75-107.
[18] Gardner, R.G. and Panthee, D.R. (2010) NC 1 CELBR and NC 2 CELBR: Early Blight and Late Blight Resistant Fresh Market Tomato Breeding Lines. HortScience, 45, 975-976.

Copyright © 2022 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.